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Is there a term for the desire to maintain a level of anxiety?

Is there a term for the desire to maintain a level of anxiety?


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As a war veteran who has/had PTSD, I've noticed in myself a desire to maintain a level of anxiety and stress closer to what I was used to.

You've probably also heard/seen this type of behavior from other veterans who engage in High Risk Behavior after separation from service.

I've also known former incarcerated individuals and PhD graduates who do the same.

Is there an official term for this behavior? Further reading on the topic?


With "normal" risk taking related to "thrill seekers" what you could be talking about can be

  • Sensation Seeking (Zuckerman, 2007)

    Risky behavior can be an expression of a normal, genetically influenced personality trait, sensation seeking. Its expression in risky behaviors such as extreme and risky sports, vocations, substance abuse, unsafe sex, and crime, among others, is the topic of this fascinating and accessible book.

or

  • Disinhibition (Wikipedia), which is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.

In the case of PTSD (or other mental health problems) causing the behaviour, it is Negative Urgency (Cyders & Smith, 2008), which is the tendency to engage in rash action in response to extreme negative affects (experiences of negative emotions, poor self-esteem and/or poor self-concept)

Cyders & Smith (2008) believe there is

striking circumstantial evidence that positive and negative urgency play an important role in adolescence. It seems likely that the normative adolescent experience involves a developmentally limited increase in levels of urgency, and also that there are important individual differences in the urgency traits during these years.

A study conducted by James, Strom & Leskela (2014) looked at the risk-taking behaviours and impulsivity among veterans with and without PTSD. They also compared the results with those who not only suffered PTSD, but also mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI).

[A] 42-item scale developed for the study permitted the assessment of a wide range of behaviors that are not captured in existing risk-taking measures but tend to be common and problematic among veterans (e.g., risky driving practices). Items were derived from a review of relevant literature. Participants reported how frequently they engaged in each of the behaviors using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (very often). Total scores range from 0 to 63. In addition to the total score, scores on four subscales (substance abuse, aggression, risky sexual practices, and thrill seeking) were also evaluated [… ]

As expected, the co-occurring PTSD + mTBI group endorsed significantly more risk-taking behaviors and Negative Urgency than the control group and significantly more risky substance use, aggressive behavior, and Negative Urgency than the mTBI group. An identical pattern was found for the PTSD group compared to the control group and the mTBI group. Counter to expectations, the co-occurring PTSD + mTBI group did not endorse significantly more impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors than the PTSD group. That is, individuals with PTSD, regardless of TBI status (i.e., PTSD; PTSD + mTBI), tended to engage in more risky behaviors and more impulsive behaviors in the context of negative affective states than controls and those with mTBI only. The control group and mTBI group did not significantly differ from each other. Across all four groups, thrill-seeking behaviors were the most frequently reported risk-taking behaviors. There were no group differences in Sensation Seeking.

Not surprising, considering the nature of PTSD and its effects, the study also found other highly problematic behaviours

Notably, both theoretical and empirical works also link disinhibition, or the highly related construct of impulsivity, to suicide-related behaviors. In the present study, the PTSD groups (i.e., PTSD, PTSD + mTBI) were not only characterized by greater levels of the Negative Urgency facet of impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors than the mTBI and control groups but were also more likely than the control group to have thought about suicide and purposely driven a vehicle into another object. Thus, premorbid disinhibition may place people on a track toward later involvement in risky or other highly problematic behaviors that ultimately result in psychopathological and self-destructive outcomes.

(See also, Cyders & Smith (2008) about urgency and psychopathology)

Due to risks involved with Negative Urgency, therapy needs to be sought with regard to this too.

Therapy Available

When receiving psychological help for PTSD, it is best to highlight the fact that you have a desire to maintain a level of anxiety and stress closer to what you are now used to compared to the past. That way, the best form of help can be ascertained via your therapy provider.

Your therapist may be able to incorporate therapy for this using the same techniques they use for your PTSD, or they may tweak the sessions to incorporate other techniques such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) or Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; see Linehan, 1993 or Lynch, et al., 2007)

One main focus of DBT is teaching individuals to respond adaptively to the experience of extreme emotional states, referred to in this treatment as Distress Tolerance Skills.

References

Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based Dispositions to Rash Action: Positive and Negative Urgency. Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 807-828. PMCID: PMC2705930 DOI: 10.1037/a0013341

James, L. M., Strom, T. Q., & Leskela, J. (2014). Risk-taking behaviors and impulsivity among veterans with and without PTSD and mild TBI. Military medicine, 179(4), 357-363. DOI: 10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00241

Linehan, M. (1987). Dialectical-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder: Theory and Method. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 51(3), 261-276
Free ResearchGate PDF: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marsha_Linehan/publication/19580590_Dialectical_Behavior_Therapy_for_Borderline_Personality_Disorder_Theory_and_Method/links/553076c80cf20ea0a06f7fb8/Dialectical-Behavior-Therapy-for-Borderline-Personality-Disorder-Theory-and-Method.pdf

Lynch, T. R., Trost, W. T., Salsman, N., & Linehan, M. M. (2007). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 181-205. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.2.022305.095229
Free ResearchGate PDF: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marsha_Linehan/publication/6124095_Dialectical_Behavior_Therapy_for_Borderline_Personality_Disorder/links/599ce0290f7e9b892bb003d9/Dialectical-Behavior-Therapy-for-Borderline-Personality-Disorder.pdf


When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call a suicide hotline if you have thoughts of suicide.

Call your health care provider if you feel overwhelmed by stress, or if it is affecting your health. Also call your provider if you notice new or unusual symptoms.

Reasons you may want to seek help are:

  • You have feelings of panic, such as dizziness, rapid breathing, or a racing heartbeat.
  • You are unable to work or function at home or at your job.
  • You have fears that you cannot control.
  • You are having memories of a traumatic event.

Your provider may refer you to a mental health care provider. You can talk to this professional about your feelings, what seems to make your stress better or worse, and why you think you are having this problem. You may also work on developing ways to reduce stress in your life.


‘We Won’

Sports fans tend to say “we” won, and by “we,” they don’t mean themselves, personally. The closer you identify with your team, the more likely you are to BIRG, “Bask In Reflected Glory”. In contrast, “CORF-ing” means that you “Cut Off Reflected Failure.” After a big loss some fans want to distance themselves from ‘their disgrace’ as much as possible. It’s not “we,” who lost, it’s “them!”

Of course the clear objective of every sports team is to win – or at least compete for the championship. But reality is: only one team will win the championship. In the sports industry winning and losing are inevitable. This is why sports organizations should consistently place match results in more than just a winning context, especially because satisfaction with the outcome of the games has very little to do with the loyalty of fans. Hardcore sports fans will hold onto the passion for their team no matter what. There are examples of winning teams that have attracted fewer fans than mediocre or even losing teams able to maintain a healthy fan base. So while CORF-ing and BIRK-ing might explain why the most successful teams usually enjoy a large fan base, they do not explain why some of these – loosing – teams still have any fans left.


The Psychology of a Fanboy: Why You Keep Buying the Same Stuff

None of us want to admit it, but chances are we're all fanboys of something. Whether it's a particular brand of software, gadget, or anything else, we often rally behind companies and ideologies without even realizing it. Here's why we become fanboys and how to prevent it from happening to you.

By definition, a fanboy (or fangirl) is someone who defends their favorite phone/politician/city/browser/OS/game/console/genre/etc. while attacking everything else. Whether it's the blind trust in the next iPhone, a rallying argument about President Reagan, or a fervent argument for the PS4 over the Xbox One, we like to pick sides and stick to them. This alone is obnoxious, but it causes more than just minor annoyances: it means we attach ourselves to brands and can't think critically about the choices we make when shopping.

As a result we waste money and buy crappy products based solely on who makes them. There's no single reason this happens, but we do know a few things about basic human nature that explains why a lot of people tend to become fanboys.

Social Identity Theory Colors Your Worldview

All kinds of factors play into fanboyism, but there's one theory that explains where it starts: social identity theory . Social identity theory suggests that your idea of self-concept is derived from the social group you identify with. When you're part of a group, you're more likely to sympathize and treat other members of the group with rewards. Essentially, it helps you define "us" and "them," which our brain likes to do.

We define ourselves into groups in all kinds of ways, but one way is through the stuff we own. In The Psychologist, it's suggested that our association with our belongings changes us at a neural level , and that eventually transfers over to our group as a whole:

From a neural perspective, this absorption of objects into self-identity may be more than mere metaphor. In 2010, Kyungmi Kim and Marcia Johnson scanned participants’ brains as they allocated objects to a container marked as ‘mine’, imagining that they were going to own them, or to a container marked with someone else’s name. Extra activity was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPC) in response to the sight of ‘owned’ items, compared with control items allocated to others. The same area of MPC was activated when participants rated how much various adjectives described their own personality. ‘Areas of the brain that are known to be involved in thinking about the self also appear to be involved when we create associations between external things and ourselves through ownership,’ says Kim.

Like a uniform, our possession of specific objects and brands can also signal our membership of social groups, both to others and to ourselves. The success of the Apple brand has been attributed in part to people’s desire to show that they belong to a consumer tribe with connotations of ‘coolness’.

Why does this matter in terms of fanboys? When we're part of that group, we'll defend our group with everything we've got. Psychologist Jamie Madigan explains how this works in the context of game consoles :

Part of who you are—and how you communicate that to others—is defined by what groups you belong to. And we naturally want to belong to high-status groups, right? Okay, fine, but everything is relative a group isn’t high status unless there’s a low status group for it to be contrasted against. So not only do some people identify themselves as Xbox fans, they attack PlayStation owners in order to raise their status. This tendency is human nature, the researchers concluded, and a lot of other data support them. What’s more, we’re perfectly willing to do it at the drop of a hat.

These put-downs aren’t always a conscious choice, but once we pick a side, whether it's Windows vs OS X , Xbox vs Playstation, paid vs free software , or whatever else , we're going to create an "other." Once we do that, we're already accidentally on our way to fanboyism.

Mac vs. Windows: Your Best Arguments

The war between Mac and Windows devotees has been raging for decades, and last week we asked you to


The Health Benefits of Journaling

I&rsquoll bet you write (or word process) daily. If you are like most women, you record only what you must. In an effort to change your mind and your habits, I&rsquoll let you in on a well-kept secret: A pen coupled with paper can serve as a powerful life tool.

Journaling (or keeping letters or diaries) is an ancient tradition, one that dates back to at least 10th century Japan. Successful people throughout history have kept journals. Presidents have maintained them for posterity other famous figures for their own purposes. Oscar Wilde, 19th century playwright, said: &ldquoI never travel without my diary. One should always have something sensational to read on the train.&rdquo

Whether you suffer from an eating disorder, bipolar disorder, ADD (or ADHD), depression, or even schizophrenia, journaling may be of benefit to you. All you need is a piece of paper and a pen or pencil. (Although some people use apps nowadays, you&rsquore likely to write less lengthy entries on your smartphone.)

Health Benefits

Contrary to popular belief, our forefathers (and mothers) did know a thing or two. There is increasing evidence to support the notion that journaling has a positive impact on physical well-being. University of Texas at Austin psychologist and researcher James Pennebaker contends that regular journaling strengthens immune cells, called T-lymphocytes. Other research indicates that journaling decreases the symptoms of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Pennebaker believes that writing about stressful events helps you come to terms with them, acting as a stress management tool, thus reducing the impact of these stressors on your physical health.

I know what you&rsquore thinking: &ldquoSo writing a few sentences a day may keep me healthier longer, but so will eating lima beans! Why should I bother journaling when I&rsquove already got too much on my plate?&rdquo The following facts may convince you.

Scientific evidence supports that journaling provides other unexpected benefits. The act of writing accesses your left brain, which is analytical and rational. While your left brain is occupied, your right brain is free to create, intuit and feel. In sum, writing removes mental blocks and allows you to use all of your brainpower to better understand yourself, others and the world around you. Begin journaling and begin experiencing these benefits:

    Clarify your thoughts and feelings.

Do you ever seem all jumbled up inside, unsure of what you want or feel? Taking a few minutes to jot down your thoughts and emotions (no editing!) will quickly get you in touch with your internal world.

By writing routinely you will get to know what makes you feel happy and confident. You will also become clear about situations and people who are toxic for you &mdash important information for your emotional well-being.

Writing about anger, sadness and other painful emotions helps to release the intensity of these feelings. By doing so you will feel calmer and better able to stay in the present.

Typically we problem solve from a left-brained, analytical perspective. But sometimes the answer can only be found by engaging right-brained creativity and intuition. Writing unlocks these other capabilities, and affords the opportunity for unexpected solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems.

Writing about misunderstandings rather than stewing over them will help you to understand another&rsquos point of view. And you just may come up with a sensible resolution to the conflict.

In addition to all of these wonderful benefits, keeping a journal allows you to track patterns, trends and improvement and growth over time. When current circumstances appear insurmountable, you will be able to look back on previous dilemmas that you have since resolved.

How To Begin Journaling

Your journaling will be most effective if you do it daily for about 20 minutes. Begin anywhere, and forget spelling and punctuation. Privacy is key if you are to write without censor. Write quickly, as this frees your brain from &ldquoshoulds&rdquo and other blocks to successful journaling. If it helps, pick a theme for the day, week or month (for example, peace of mind, confusion, change or anger). The most important rule of all is that there are no rules.

Through your writing you&rsquoll discover that your journal is an all-accepting, nonjudgmental friend. And she may provide the cheapest therapy you will ever get. Best of luck on your journaling journey!

Learn more: 15 Common Cognitive Distortions that could be holding you back!


Kinds of Love

According to the theory, different combinations of intimacy, passion, and commitment yield different kinds of love.

  • None of the components = nonlove.
  • Intimacy alone = friendship. This is the type of love experienced by good friends. It is a limiting case of love.
  • Passion alone = infatuated love. This is the kind of love one experiences in love at first sight. It is a limiting case of love.
  • Commitment alone = empty love. This is the kind of love one experiences when all that holds a couple together is the cognition that one should stay in the relationship. It is characterized by the beginning of arranged relationships and marriages and the (emotional) end of relationships that have failed over time.
  • Intimacy + passion = romantic love. This is the type of love experienced by those who fall in love with each other but who are not ready to commit for the long term, such as students whose future lives are yet uncertain.
  • Intimacy + commitment = companionate love. This is the kind of love that often develops over the course of many years, when the passion begins to flicker. Many long-term, stable relationships are based on companionate love.
  • Passion + commitment = fatuous (foolish) love. This is the kind of love, sometimes seen in movies, in which partners commit to each other on the basis of passion without even truly getting to know each other. These kinds of relationships do not have a good prognosis.
  • Intimacy + passion + commitment = consummate (complete) love. This is the kind of love to which many people aspire: It is difficult to attain and even more difficult to maintain. People generally have to work at relationships and mutual growth to maintain consummate love.

Psychology

The increased stress of competitions can cause athletes to react both physically and mentally to affect their performance abilities negatively. They may become tense, their heart rates race, they break into a cold sweat, worry about the outcome of the competition, they find it hard to concentrate on the task at hand.

This has led coaches to take an increasing interest in the field of sports psychology and in particular in the area of competitive anxiety. That interest has focused on techniques that athletes can use in the competitive situation to maintain control and optimise their performance. Once learned, these techniques allow the athlete to relax and focus his/her attention positively on preparing for and participating in the competition. Psychology is another weapon in the athlete's armoury in gaining the winning edge. To know more about an athlete's psychological abilities, a free reading regarding custom psychic can be a great help.

The 4C's

Concentration, confidence, control and commitment (the 4C's) are generally considered the main mental qualities important for successful performance in most sports.

  • Concentration - ability to maintain focus
  • Confidence - believe in one's abilities
  • Control - the ability to maintain emotional control regardless of distraction
  • Commitment - ability to continue working to agreed goals

The techniques of relaxation, centring and mental imagery can assist an athlete in achieving the 4C's.

Concentration

This is the mental quality to focus on the task at hand. If the athlete lacks concentration, then their athletic abilities will not be effectively or efficiently applied to the task. Research has identified the following types of attention focus:

  • Broad Narrow continuum - the athlete focuses on a large or small number of stimuli
  • Internal External continuum - the athlete focuses on internal stimuli (feelings) or external stimuli (ball)

The demand for concentration varies with the sport:

  • Sustained concentration - distance running, cycling, tennis, squash
  • Short bursts of concentration - cricket, golf, shooting, athletic field events
  • Intense concentration - sprinting events, bobsleigh, skiing

Common distractions are anxiety, mistakes, fatigue, weather, public announcements, coach, manager, opponent, negative thoughts etc.

Strategies to improve concentration are very personal. One way to maintain focus is to set process goals for each session or competition. The athlete will have an overall goal for which the athlete will identify several process goals that help focus on specific aspects of the task. For each of these goals, the athlete can use a trigger word (a word which instantly refocuses the athlete's concentration to the goal), e.g. sprinting technique requires the athlete to focus on being tall, relaxed, smooth and to drive with the elbows - trigger word could be "technique".

Athletes will develop a routine for a competition that may include the night before, the morning, pre-competition, competition and post-competition routines. If these routines are appropriately structured, then they can prove a useful aid to concentration.

Confidence

Confidence results from the comparison an athlete makes between the goal and their ability. The athlete will have self-confidence if they believe they can achieve their goal. (Comes back to a quote of mine - "You only achieve what you believe").

When an athlete has self-confidence, they will tend to: persevere even when things are not going to plan, show enthusiasm, be positive in their approach and take their share of the responsibility in success and fail.

To improve their self-confidence, an athlete can use mental imagery to:

  • visualise previous good performance to remind them of the look and feel
  • imagine various scenarios and how they will cope with them

Proper goal setting (challenging yet realistic) can bring feelings of success. If athletes can see that they are achieving their short-term goals and moving towards their long-term goals, then confidence grows.

Confidence is a positive state of mind and a belief that you can meet the challenge ahead - a feeling of being in control. It is not the situation that directly affects confidence thoughts, assumptions and expectations can build or destroy confidence.

  • Thoughts - positive thoughts of success
  • Feelings - excited, anticipation, calm, elation, prepared
  • Focus - on self, on the task
  • Behaviour - give maximum effort and commitment, willing to take chances, positive reaction to setbacks, open to learning, take responsibility for outcomes
  • Thoughts - negative, defeat or failure, doubt
  • Feelings - tense, dread, fear. not wanting to take part
  • Focus - on others, on less relevant factors (coach, umpire, conditions)
  • Behaviour - lack of effort, likely to give up, unwilling to take risks (rather play safe), blame others or conditions for an outcome

Control

Identifying when an athlete feels a particular emotion and understanding the reason for the feelings is essential in helping an athlete gain emotional control. An athlete's ability to maintain control of their feelings in the face of adversity and remain positive is vital to successful performance. Two emotions that are often associated with poor performance are anxiety and anger.

Anxiety comes in two forms - Physical (butterflies, sweating, nausea, needing the toilet) and Mental (worry, negative thoughts, confusion, lack of concentration). Relaxation is a technique that can be used to reduce anxiety.

When an athlete becomes angry, the cause of anger often becomes the focus of attention. This leads to a lack of concentration on the task, performance deteriorates, and confidence in ability is lost, which fuels the anger - a slippery slope to failure.

Commitment

Sports performance depends on the athlete being fully committed to many goals over many years. In competition with these goals, the athlete will have many aspects of daily life to manage. The many competing interests and commitments include work, studies, family/partner, friends, social life and other hobbies/sports.

Within the athlete's sport, commitment can be undermined by:

  • a perceived lack of progress or improvement
  • not being sufficiently involved in developing the training program
  • not understanding the objectives of the training program
  • injury
  • lack of enjoyment
  • anxiety about performance - competition
  • becoming bored
  • coach and athlete not working as a team
  • lack of commitment by other athletes

Setting goals with the athlete will raise their feelings of value, give them joint ownership of the goals, and become more committed to achieving them. All goals should be SMARTER.

Many people (coach, medical support team, manager, friends, etc.) can contribute to an athlete's commitment levels with appropriate levels of support and positive feedback, especially during times of injury, illness and poor performance.

Successful emotional states

The following are emotional states experienced with successful performance:

  • Happy - felt that this was my opportunity to demonstrate excellent performance. Thought I could beat anybody.
  • Calm and nervous - Felt nervous but really at ease with these feelings. I accepted and expected to be nervous but felt ready to start.
  • Anxious but excited - Felt so ready to compete but a little nervous. Nerves and excitement come together
  • Confident - I remembered all the successful training sessions and previous best performances

Psychology Skills Training

Psychology skills training for the athlete should aim to improve their mental skills, such as self-confidence, motivation, the ability to relax under high pressure, and the ability to concentrate and usually has three phases:

  • Education phase, during which athletes learn about the importance of psychological skills and how they affect performance
  • Acquisition phase, during which athletes learn about the strategies and techniques to improve the specific psychological skills that they require
  • Practice phase, during which athletes develop their psychological skills through repeated practice, simulations, and actual competition.

You can get free, instant access to my Sports Mental Toughness Handbook right now. Go Here.

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What It Looks Like

Someone with high functioning anxiety may be the picture of success. You might arrive to work earlier than everyone else, impeccably dressed, with your hair neatly styled.

Coworkers may say you are driven in your work—you've never missed a deadline or fallen short in a given task.   Not only that, but you're also always willing to help others when asked. What's more, your social schedule also seems busy and full.

What others might not know (and what you would never share) is that beneath the surface of a seemingly perfect exterior, you're fighting a constant churn of anxiety.

It may have been nervous energy, fear of failure, and being afraid of disappointing others that drove you to success.

Though you desperately need a day off work to get yourself together, you're often too afraid to call in sick. Nobody would ever believe something was wrong, because you always portrayed yourself as being fine.

If these characteristics sound familiar, here's a look at what you might experience or what others might observe of you if you have high functioning anxiety.


1 Mark Questions

Question 1.
What is sports psychology?
OR
Define sports psychology.
Answer:
Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human F behaviour on the playfield, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.

Question 2.
Define personality.
Answer:
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “The totality of sentiments, attitude, idea, habits, skills and behaviours of an individual is personality.

Question 3.
What are coping strategies?
Answer:
Coping strategies are a conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems. They are of two types problem-focused coping . and emotion-focused coping.

Question 4.
What do you understand by aggression in sports?
Answer:
In sports, aggression means the desire to harm another player which is not within the laws of the game. For example, pushing another player over a game in football or using abusive language for other players or teams,

Question 5.
What is motivation?
Answer:
Motivation means to be inspired to do something a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction.

Question 6.
What are the types of motivation?
Answer:
There are two types of motivation

Question 7.
What is intrinsic motivation? Delhi 2016
Answer:
This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.

Question 8.
How extrinsic’motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
Answer:
Extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation sometimes because the physical appearance of something has more influence on the mind of an athlete.

3 Marks Questions

Question 9.
What is the importance of sports psychology?
Answer:
The importance of sports psychology can be understood from the following’points

  • It analyses the behaviour of sportsmen.
  • It identifies talent for specific sport’s.
  • It creates a better learning situation.
  • It stabilises the performance of a sportsperson for a longer period.
  • It is important from the research point of view.
  • It encourages the players to make a comeback in professional sports.

Question 10.
Explain any two techniques to manage stress.
Answer:
Two techniques to manage stress are –

  1. Aim to Exercise Regularly Exercise dissipates the adrenaline that builds up in stressful situations and leaves us with a feeling or sense of achievement and control.
  2. Eat Healthy Ensure that you are getting adequate vitamins and minerals in your diet. One recommendation that very few of us manage to follow is to eat 5 servings of fruit and vegetables every day.

Question 11.
What are the types of personality as given by Sheldon?
Answer:
The personality types on the basis of physical attributes are given by William Herbert Sheldon. These are as follows

  1. Endomorph The endomorph is physically quite round, with wide hips, narrow shoulders, which makes them pear-shaped. Lot of fat is spread across the body. They are sociable, fun-loving, tolerant, even-tempered, good-humoured, relaxed and love food.
  2. Ectomorph They are quite the opposite of endomorph. They have narrow shoulders and hips, thin, narrow face, high forehead, thin, narrow chest and very little body fat. They are self-conscious, private, introvert, socially anxious, intense, emotionally restrained and thoughtful.
  3. Mesomorph They are somewhere between endomorph and ectomorph. They have large head, broad shoulders, narrow waist (wedge-shaped), muscular body, strong limbs and little body fat. They are well proportioned. They are adventurous, courageous, assertive, bold, competitive, with a desire to dominate, take risk, rise to power.

Question 12.
What are the personality types as formulated by Carl Jung?
Answer:
The personality type on mental basis is formulated by Carl Jung.
These are as follows

  1. Extroverts Have more self-confidence, take more interest in others, are outgoing, lively and realistic. They are very social and form friends quite easily. Actors, social and political leaders etc belong to this group.
  2. Introverts Are too self-conscious, more interested in their own thoughts and ideas, self-centred, shy, reserved and lovers of solitude. They do not make friends easily and keep in the background on social occasions. Philosophers, poets, artists and scientists belong to this class.
  3. Ambiverts Doubting whether people can be divided into these two extremes, he put most of the people in this category and they have been labelled as ‘ambiverts.’ The ambiverts are a mixture of both the extremes in a balanced manner. Ambiverts are neither outgoing nor reserved to themselves. They are able to adjust themselves to any situation.

Question 13.
Explain the type of aggression in sports.
Answer:
There are two types of aggression in sports

  1. Instrumental Aggression It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is directed at the target as a means to an end. For example, injuring a player to gain a competitive advantage or stopping an opponent from scoring.
  2. Hostile Aggression It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is aimed toward another person who has angered or provoked the individual and is an end in itself. For example, hitting an opponent who has just been aggressive against the player. It is generally proceeded by anger.

Question 14.
Explain two techniques of motivation.
Answer:
Two techniques of motivation are

  1. Level of Aspiration/ Goal Setting As we know that achieving performance goals is a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, it is necessary to set realistic goals based on one’s own abilities.
  2. Identifying Incentive Factors If an athlete perceives that any particular kind of experiences are available to him in a given sport and he feels that these will be pleasant, enjoyable or satisfying, then he will choose to participate in that game or sport and not any other.

Question 15.
Explain goal setting as a technique of motivation in brief. CBSE 2012
Answer:
Goal setting technique is one of the most important techniques of motivation. If you do not set a goal, you cannot achieve an apex position in life. A person should set goals according to one’s capabilities on a regular basis. Coaches should not be too rigid while setting goals for a sportsperson. There should be some flexibility in their approach.

Question 16.
What is meant by motivation? Explain the different techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports. All India 2017
Answer:
Motivation is a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction.
Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are

  1. Knowing Your Athlete Each athlete comes from a different background with varied experiences and having different degrees of maturity.
  2. Level of Aspiration/ Goal Setting As we know that achieving performance goals is a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, it is necessary to set realistic goals based on one’s own abilities.
  3. Identifying Incentive Factors If an athlete perceives that any particular kind of experiences are available to him in a given sport and he feels that these will be pleasant, enjoyable or satisfying, then he will choose to participate in that game or, sport and not any other.

5 Marks Questions

Question 17.
Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports.
Answer:
Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human behaviour on the playfield, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.
Importance of sports psychology is due to

  1. Analysing the Behaviour of Sportsmen Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.
  2. Identifying Talent for Specific Sports Every sport has specific psychological demands e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.
  3. Stabilising the Performance for Longer Period It helps in stabilising the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological makeup and anxiety level.
  4. Important from Research Point of View Sports psychologists work in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the erformance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.
  5. Encouraging the Players to Make a Comeback in Professional Sports Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.

Question 18.
Explain the structure of personality.
Describe the role of sports in developing the personality, (Delhi 2016)
Answer:
The word personality is derived from Latin word persona meaning the mask. In ancient Greece, the actors used to wear masks to hide their identities while portraying their roles in a theatrical play.

To an ordinary person the word personality conveys the meaning of one’s physical appearance, his habits, his ways of dressing, his reputation, his manners and other similar characteristics.

So, personality basically reveals the psychological make-up of ah individual through his behaviour. In fact, it is the quality of a person’s total behaviour. Physical activities and sports play an important role in the development of personality of an individual.

One of the primary and apparent aspects of one’s personality is one’s physical appearance. Children, as well as adults, boys as well as girls, all, are very much concerned about how they look. Physical activities are conducive to the growth and development of the physique. Robust and athletic physique does enhance one’s personality. Poise, grace, agility and the manner one carries oneself have a great impact on one’s personality.

Question 19.
Participation in sport results in the all-round development of personality. Justify.
Answer:
Games and sports are essential for the all- round development of personality.
It is by participating in games and sports that we can develop and maintain our health, keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. Participation increases blood circulation and we get an increased supply of oxygen. This makes a person healthier. Only a healthy person can work long, hard and cheerfully.

An unhealthy person may not take as much interest in work. Games and sports have additional benefits to exercise as they are played in groups and in a healthy competitive spirit.

Among many other things, they help develop cooperation, quality of leadership, team spirit and a willingness to submit to, and further, the rule of law. Games instil in participants the spirit of self-reliance, justice, fair play and sporting spirit. They make people bold, adventurous, social, disciplined and more conscious of their responsibilities towards society and the nation. People participating regularly in games and sports have been found better equipped to fight superstitions, communalism, obscurantism and a narrow approach to issues of national interest.

Games also help in overcoming feelings of violence, arrogance and superiority as these are purged by providing them a sufficient outlet through them. A sportsperson may not lose his or her temper and morale even in the face of defeat because he/she would take it coolly, calmly and then would try to perform better the next time.

Players know that victory and defeat are two aspects of the same coin. There is more joy in playing than in its end result. Thus, participation in sport results in the all-round development of personality.

Question 20.
Define stress. How stress can be tackled by the players? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
Answer:
Stress can be defined as a physical, mental or emotional demand, which tends to disturb the homeostasis of the body.” Stress is experienced when individuals feel that they cannot cope with a situation with which they are presented.

If athletes are in a stressful situation, then their athletic performance will be affected. This stress may arise because of commitments in the areas of work, study, sports, family and social life. When commitments in a number of areas coincide, then stress can arise. By proper planning, the stress can be tackled or reduced. Some steps can be taken to reduce stress.

  • Exercise Regularly Regular exercise can control stressful situation.
  • Eat Healthy Balanced diet enriched with vitamins and minerals should be taken.
  • Get Enough Sleep Get enough sleep for proper rest and sleeping hours may vary person to person.
  • Accept Mistake and Set Realistic Goals Learn from mistakes and set realistic achievable goals.
  • Knowing your Own Strength and Weakness Accept your own drawbacks and strength and plan the action according to it.
  • Better Time Management Better time management saves time and helps to pre-plan the programme which ultimately can reduce stress.

Following these steps, a player can easily tackle stress in his life.

Value-Based Question

Question 21.
Your friend is under a lot of stress as he is not able to take even a single wicket in cricket match series. Suggest ways by which you can help him to come out of stress.
Answer:
There are two ways by which I can help him to come out of stress. First is by adopting a problem-focused coping strategy, in which I will ask him to find the root cause of his problem such as to check the bowling speed, pace, style and length of delivery. Then suggest him to find out ways of improving it. For this, he can take help of his coach. Second is by adopting the emotion-focused coping strategy.

Here I will ask him to disengage from that situation by doing some new activity or simply relaxing, watching TV, take him to movies, listen to music etc.

1 Mark Questions
Question.1. What is anxiety? [CBSE2013]
Answer. Anxiety is a disturbed state of the body or an unrealistic and unpleasant state of body and mind. It,is accompanied by nervousness, restlessness, increased heart rate, sweating, drying of the mouth, apprehension of danger, fear and rapid shallow breathing.

Question.2. What is ethics in sports?
Answer. Ethics is a branch or subdiscipline of philosophy called axiology, the study of values. Ethics in sports means to have an ideal conduct and knowledge of good and evil and what should be done and not to be done by a person.
Ethical behaviour in sports includes:

  1. sportsmanship
  2. good character
  3. fair play
  4. cooperative and self- disciplined behaviour

Question.3. What is sports psychology?
Or
Define sports psychology.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training/competitions.

Question.4.What is motivation?
Answer.Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a person to make constant effort.

Question.5.What are the types of motivation?
Answer.(i) Internal or natural (intrinsic) motivation.
(ii) External or artificial (extrinsic) motivation

Question.6.Define anxiety in one sentence.
Answer.Anxiety is a chronic fear that limits our ability to carry out normal functions.

Question.7.What is intrinsic motivation?
Answer.This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.

Question.8.What are the causes and symptoms of anxiety in sports?
Answer.Causes:

  1. Feeling restlessness
  2. Muscular tension
  3. Nervousness
  4. Headache
  5. Increased BP
  6. Confusion

Question.9.How extrinsic motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation?
Answer.Extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation sometimes because the physical appearance of something has more influence on the mind of an athlete.

Question.10.What do you understand by self-esteem?
Answer.Self-esteem means how you value and respect yourself as a person. It is the real opinion you have of yourself. It impacts how you take care of yourself physically, emotionally and spiritually.

3 Marks Questions
Question.11. Explain any three causes of anxiety.
Answer. The various causes of anxiety are (any three):

  1. Uncertainty about Result Competitions provide challenge and stimulation. It is in the field of unpredictability. The outcome is not known. One is under pressure for one’s achievements.
  2. Level of Competition The more important the contest, the greater is the stress or level of anxiety for that particular competition.
  3. Expectations of Spectators The spectators have a huge role or impact on how athletes feel. The expectations are more when it is a home venue.
  4. Possibility of Getting Hurt This can be a source of anxiety, especially in games like boxing, martial arts, gymnastics etc because the chances of injury are more.
  5. Expectations of Success Some athletes take up the challenge and are psyched up to perform better and get success, whereas some are not coming upto the expectations and are psyched-out, which causes failure.

Question.12. Explain goal setting as a technique of motivation in brief. [CBSE 2012]
Answer. Goal setting technique is one of the most important techniques of motivation. If you do not set a goal, you cannot achieve an apex position in life. A person should set goals according to one’s capabilities on a regular basis. Coaches should not be too rigid while setting goals for a sportsperson. There should be some flexibility in their approach.

Question.13. Explain two techniques of motivation.
Answer. Two techniques of motivation are:

  1. Goal Setting Sportsmen should be encouraged to set a few ambitious but achievable long-term as well as medium-term goals, e.g. if a person wants to get a good position or a medal in Olympic Games, he should also set the goals for getting a position in Asian or National Games.
  2. Elaborate Arrangement of Competition Sports persons perform better in competitions if there are elaborate arrangements of competition. However, an inexperienced sportsperson may not be able to put up a good show.

Question.14. What is the importance of sports psychology?
Answer. The importance of sports psychology can be understood from the following points:

  1. It analyses the behaviour of sportsmen.
  2. It identifies talent for specific sports.
  3. It creates a better learning situation.
  4. It stabilises the performance of a sportsperson for a longer period.
  5. It is important from the research point of view.
  6. It encourages the players to perform better.

Question.15. Explain any three techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports.
Answer.Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are

  1. Healthy Sports Environment A healthy sports environment plays a vital role in motivating the sportsperson. Healthy sport environment consists of proper humidity and temperature, smooth and clean sports fields, good quality of sports equipment and other facilities. .
  2. Positive Attitude For proper motivation, the coaches should try to encourage positive attitude among sportspersons. Players must think positively.
  3. Cash Prizes, Certificates and Trophies These are good incentives to sportspersons. Governments offer cash prizes to sportspersons who win.

Question.16. What is the role of anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety plays an important role in sports. It is an essential ingredient of any competitive situation. Anxiety levels differ from athlete to athlete and from situation to situation. Athletes learn how to cope with stressful and competitive situations and manage anxiety with or assistance from a coach, otherwise they would not be able to give outstanding performances.

Question.17. How can you manage anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety can be managed by:

  1. Keeping cool
  2. Yogic meditation
  3. Biofeedback
  4. Following a behaviour modification strategy
  5. Progressive relaxation breathing technique
  6. Somatic adjustment (control of cognitive processes)
  7. Guidance from a technically trained sports psychologist

Question.18. What are general sports ethics?
Answer. Sports ethics means the code of conduct of players, coaches, supervisors and administrators of various organisations. Ethics such as honesty, fairplay, obedience of rules, discipline and many moral behaviours are developed through participation.
Some common ethics related to sports are:

  1. Winning and losing gracefully.
  2. Getting recognition, name and fame without using unfair means.
  3. Loyalty towards his/her team, game, institution or country.

Question.19. What principles should be followed for goal setting?
Answer. Principles to be followed for goal setting are:

  1. Make goals specific, measurable, and observable.
  2. Clearly identify time constraints.
  3. Use moderately difficult goals they are superior to either easy or very difficult goals.
  4. Write goals down and regularly monitor progress.
  5. Use a mix of process, performance, and outcome goals.
  6. Use short range goals to achieve long range goals.
  7. Set team as well as individual performance goals.
  8. Set practice as well as competition goals.
  9. Make sure goals are internalised by the athlete.
  10. Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting.

Question.20. Explain any two techniques to manage stress.
Answer. Two techniques to manage stress are:

  1. Participation in Physical Activities Physical exercises of moderate to high intensity, like aerobic exercises, are one of the”best methods to relieve stress. Physically fit persons are more resistant to the effects of stress than others.
  2. Achieve a High Level of Physical Fitness Achieving fitness is important to manage stress advantageously, while not eliminating it totally. Too little or too severe stress both lower performance in sports.

5 Marks Questions
Question.21. Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training or competitions.
Importance of Sports Psychology is due to :

  1. Learning of Motor Skills Sports psychology plays a major role in the learning of motor skills. Motor skills learning depends on the dividual’s level of readiness.
  2. Analysing the Behaviour of Sportsmen Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.
  3. Identifying Talent for Specific Sports Every sports has specific psychological demands, e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.
  4. Stabilising the Performance for Longer Period It helps in stabilising the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological make up and anxiety level.
  5. Important from Research Point of View Sports psychologists works in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the performance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.
  6. Encouraging the Players to Make a Comeback in Professional Sports Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.

Question.22. What is motivation? Explain different types of motivation.
Answer. Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a man to make constant effort.
According to Crook and Stein, “Motivation is any condition that might energise and direct our action.”
Types of Motivation
There are two types of motivation:

  1. Intrinsic Motivation This motivation is within an individual and guides him/her to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social need etc. It also depends upon knowledge of result, personal factor, competition zeal etc. He/she participates in sports for his/her own sake.
  2. Extrinsic Motivation This motivation depends upon environmental factors. It has a great impact on an individual’s performance. It is of various types like rewards, punishment, active participation, test evaluation, teaching methods, equipment and surroundings etc.

Question.23. Participation in sport results in all-round development of personality. Justify.
Answer. Games and sports are essential for the all- round development of personality. It is by participating in games and sports that we can develop and maintain our health, keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. Participation increases blood circulation and we get an increased supply of oxygen. This makes a person healthier. Only a healthy person can work long, hard and cheerfully. An unhealthy person may not take as much interest in work.
Games and sports have additional benefits to exercise as they are played in groups and in a healthy competitive spirit. Among many other things, they help develop cooperation, quality of leadership, team spirit and a willingness to submit to, and further, the rule of law. Games instil in participants the spirit of self-reliance, justice, fair play and sporting spirit. They make people bold, adventurous, social, disciplined and more conscious of their responsibilities towards society and the nation. People participating regularly in games and sports have been found better equipped to fight superstitions, communalism, obscurantism and a narrow approach to issues of national interest.
Games also help in overcoming feelings of violence, arrogance and superiority as these are purged by providing them a sufficient outlet through them. A sports person may not lose his or her temper and morale even in the face of defeat because he/ she would take it coolly, calmly and then would try to perform better the next time. Players know that victory and defeat are two aspects of the same coin. There is more joy in playing than in its end result. Thus, participation in sport results in all-round development of personality.

We hope the Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports help you. If you have any query regarding Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.


The Psychology of Ghosting: Why People Do It and a Better Way to Break Up

Chances are you've been "ghosted" before. "Ghosting" is when someone you're dating ends the relationship by cutting off all communication, without any explanation. And we're not talking about not getting a text back after one awkward OKCupid date, but receiving the ultimate silent treatment after several dates, or when you're in a committed relationship. And while this post focuses on romantic relationships, it's worth noting that ghosting can also happen -- no less painfully -- in platonic friendships as well.

Even though the silence probably left you at best confused, and at worst, diving into your deepest insecurities for answers, an Elle.com survey found that you've also likely been the ghost yourself at some point. The survey shows that 26 percent of women and 33 percent of men have both ghosted and been ghosted, while 24 percent of women and 17 percent of men admit to ghosting (but not being ghosted on).

So, you may already know from experience that we can't simply categorize ghosts as bad people with no respect for others' feelings.

There are many psychological reasons why someone ghosts, but at its core, ghosting is avoidance and often stems from fear of conflict. Which means, at its heart, that ghosting is about wanting to avoid confrontation, avoid difficult conversations, avoid hurting someone's feelings.

To learn more about how all that avoidance can increase your anxiety and the amount of conflict in your life, keep reading.

It's important to distinguish the "ghosting" phenomenon from escaping an unsafe or abusive relationship. You have every right to escape the latter without further communication, in whatever way keeps you physically and emotionally safe. However, if your motivation for disappearing is avoidance, then you might want to consider a better way to break up.

Scientific studies on ghosting show it's costly for both parties

Relationship research shows that ghosting (a.k.a. avoidance) is the worst way to end a relationship, according to the recipient, and can actually lead to bigger confrontations down the line. While ghosting seems to have become pervasive over the last decade, and many people point to more online dating apps and fading decorum around courting as causes -- ghosting is nothing new.

According to a study on preferred relationship ending strategies conducted in the 1970s, when one person ends a relationship through avoidance, it's likely to trigger more anger and hurt for the recipient.

Surprisingly, avoidance also costs the ghost much more in the long run, because frustrated recipients often track down and confront the ghost, sometimes in embarrassing situations like at work or in front of family.

For someone who chose to avoid conflict in the first place, a showdown is the worst outcome a ghost could hope for--and it ends up being more destructive for both parties than just initially communicating during a breakup. The study also explains the lasting cost of guilt that a ghost feels, finding that "even if the other party passively accepts the avoidance action, the terminator faces the lingering cost of knowing that he or she took the coward's way out of the relationship."

Avoiding conflict reinforces anxiety

Most people don't look forward to tough conversations, and breaking up certainly falls in that category. Fear of disappointing someone, looking like the "bad guy," or dealing with someone's direct anger can cause anxiety. But the more you avoid conflict, the more anxiety builds over time.

Each time you think about having a tough conversation, your anxiety and fear of conflict take over, and you avoid the conversation to suppress your fear.

The more you back down from your anxiety, the more likely you are to avoid anxiety-producing situations in the future. In fact, a frequent ghost is probably avoiding conflicts throughout their relationship. And many of the issues they avoid are likely problems that might have been sorted out through open communication.

By working to overcome fear of conflict, you can reduce anxiety, and build courage and communication skills that are important in many types of relationships--from friendships to the workplace. Here's how to overcome your fear of conflict:

Practice with someone safe to face your fear

One of the best ways to confront your fear of conflict is with a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) technique called exposure. Exposure means putting yourself into the situation you fear in real-life to gradually lessen your usual anxious responses to the situation. You don't have to tackle the scariest conversations first. Build up to the toughest ones -- like relationship discussions -- by practicing with someone you trust and feel comfortable around, like a close friend or family member. If you struggle with disagreements, you can start by expressing your opinions about impersonal things like a movie or a restaurant when they differ from your friends' thoughts.

Confronting your fears gets easier the more you do it. So, after practicing with someone safe, you'll be ready to start exposing yourself to more difficult conversations. These could include small disagreements with your significant other. Over time, you'll conquer your fear of conflict and tendency to avoid hard conversations.

Take care of yourself

Exposure will probably be uncomfortable or difficult, so take care of yourself before and after. Breakups can also be as hard on the person ending the relationship as the person being broken up with. You may feel guilt over initiating a breakup, or even guilt over your sadness it ended, since you initiated the split. Keep in mind that caring about someone and wanting to be in a relationship with them are separate things.

After exposure or a difficult relationship discussion, try taking a relaxing 10-minute walk, practicing a breathing exercise, or enjoying a long bath. Give yourself credit for confronting your fear.

To uncover the thoughts contributing to your fear of conflict and learn how to challenge them, try a free 7-day trial of Lantern here. You'll be paired with a professional coach that can guide you through anxiety-reducing techniques, or listen and give you feedback on your specific relationship concerns.

-- Maya Borgueta, Psy.D and Senior Coach at Lantern

This article first appeared on Lantern's blog, which shares expert advice and research on strengthening emotional well-being.


What It Looks Like

Someone with high functioning anxiety may be the picture of success. You might arrive to work earlier than everyone else, impeccably dressed, with your hair neatly styled.

Coworkers may say you are driven in your work—you've never missed a deadline or fallen short in a given task.   Not only that, but you're also always willing to help others when asked. What's more, your social schedule also seems busy and full.

What others might not know (and what you would never share) is that beneath the surface of a seemingly perfect exterior, you're fighting a constant churn of anxiety.

It may have been nervous energy, fear of failure, and being afraid of disappointing others that drove you to success.

Though you desperately need a day off work to get yourself together, you're often too afraid to call in sick. Nobody would ever believe something was wrong, because you always portrayed yourself as being fine.

If these characteristics sound familiar, here's a look at what you might experience or what others might observe of you if you have high functioning anxiety.


Kinds of Love

According to the theory, different combinations of intimacy, passion, and commitment yield different kinds of love.

  • None of the components = nonlove.
  • Intimacy alone = friendship. This is the type of love experienced by good friends. It is a limiting case of love.
  • Passion alone = infatuated love. This is the kind of love one experiences in love at first sight. It is a limiting case of love.
  • Commitment alone = empty love. This is the kind of love one experiences when all that holds a couple together is the cognition that one should stay in the relationship. It is characterized by the beginning of arranged relationships and marriages and the (emotional) end of relationships that have failed over time.
  • Intimacy + passion = romantic love. This is the type of love experienced by those who fall in love with each other but who are not ready to commit for the long term, such as students whose future lives are yet uncertain.
  • Intimacy + commitment = companionate love. This is the kind of love that often develops over the course of many years, when the passion begins to flicker. Many long-term, stable relationships are based on companionate love.
  • Passion + commitment = fatuous (foolish) love. This is the kind of love, sometimes seen in movies, in which partners commit to each other on the basis of passion without even truly getting to know each other. These kinds of relationships do not have a good prognosis.
  • Intimacy + passion + commitment = consummate (complete) love. This is the kind of love to which many people aspire: It is difficult to attain and even more difficult to maintain. People generally have to work at relationships and mutual growth to maintain consummate love.

The Health Benefits of Journaling

I&rsquoll bet you write (or word process) daily. If you are like most women, you record only what you must. In an effort to change your mind and your habits, I&rsquoll let you in on a well-kept secret: A pen coupled with paper can serve as a powerful life tool.

Journaling (or keeping letters or diaries) is an ancient tradition, one that dates back to at least 10th century Japan. Successful people throughout history have kept journals. Presidents have maintained them for posterity other famous figures for their own purposes. Oscar Wilde, 19th century playwright, said: &ldquoI never travel without my diary. One should always have something sensational to read on the train.&rdquo

Whether you suffer from an eating disorder, bipolar disorder, ADD (or ADHD), depression, or even schizophrenia, journaling may be of benefit to you. All you need is a piece of paper and a pen or pencil. (Although some people use apps nowadays, you&rsquore likely to write less lengthy entries on your smartphone.)

Health Benefits

Contrary to popular belief, our forefathers (and mothers) did know a thing or two. There is increasing evidence to support the notion that journaling has a positive impact on physical well-being. University of Texas at Austin psychologist and researcher James Pennebaker contends that regular journaling strengthens immune cells, called T-lymphocytes. Other research indicates that journaling decreases the symptoms of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Pennebaker believes that writing about stressful events helps you come to terms with them, acting as a stress management tool, thus reducing the impact of these stressors on your physical health.

I know what you&rsquore thinking: &ldquoSo writing a few sentences a day may keep me healthier longer, but so will eating lima beans! Why should I bother journaling when I&rsquove already got too much on my plate?&rdquo The following facts may convince you.

Scientific evidence supports that journaling provides other unexpected benefits. The act of writing accesses your left brain, which is analytical and rational. While your left brain is occupied, your right brain is free to create, intuit and feel. In sum, writing removes mental blocks and allows you to use all of your brainpower to better understand yourself, others and the world around you. Begin journaling and begin experiencing these benefits:

    Clarify your thoughts and feelings.

Do you ever seem all jumbled up inside, unsure of what you want or feel? Taking a few minutes to jot down your thoughts and emotions (no editing!) will quickly get you in touch with your internal world.

By writing routinely you will get to know what makes you feel happy and confident. You will also become clear about situations and people who are toxic for you &mdash important information for your emotional well-being.

Writing about anger, sadness and other painful emotions helps to release the intensity of these feelings. By doing so you will feel calmer and better able to stay in the present.

Typically we problem solve from a left-brained, analytical perspective. But sometimes the answer can only be found by engaging right-brained creativity and intuition. Writing unlocks these other capabilities, and affords the opportunity for unexpected solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems.

Writing about misunderstandings rather than stewing over them will help you to understand another&rsquos point of view. And you just may come up with a sensible resolution to the conflict.

In addition to all of these wonderful benefits, keeping a journal allows you to track patterns, trends and improvement and growth over time. When current circumstances appear insurmountable, you will be able to look back on previous dilemmas that you have since resolved.

How To Begin Journaling

Your journaling will be most effective if you do it daily for about 20 minutes. Begin anywhere, and forget spelling and punctuation. Privacy is key if you are to write without censor. Write quickly, as this frees your brain from &ldquoshoulds&rdquo and other blocks to successful journaling. If it helps, pick a theme for the day, week or month (for example, peace of mind, confusion, change or anger). The most important rule of all is that there are no rules.

Through your writing you&rsquoll discover that your journal is an all-accepting, nonjudgmental friend. And she may provide the cheapest therapy you will ever get. Best of luck on your journaling journey!

Learn more: 15 Common Cognitive Distortions that could be holding you back!


The Psychology of Ghosting: Why People Do It and a Better Way to Break Up

Chances are you've been "ghosted" before. "Ghosting" is when someone you're dating ends the relationship by cutting off all communication, without any explanation. And we're not talking about not getting a text back after one awkward OKCupid date, but receiving the ultimate silent treatment after several dates, or when you're in a committed relationship. And while this post focuses on romantic relationships, it's worth noting that ghosting can also happen -- no less painfully -- in platonic friendships as well.

Even though the silence probably left you at best confused, and at worst, diving into your deepest insecurities for answers, an Elle.com survey found that you've also likely been the ghost yourself at some point. The survey shows that 26 percent of women and 33 percent of men have both ghosted and been ghosted, while 24 percent of women and 17 percent of men admit to ghosting (but not being ghosted on).

So, you may already know from experience that we can't simply categorize ghosts as bad people with no respect for others' feelings.

There are many psychological reasons why someone ghosts, but at its core, ghosting is avoidance and often stems from fear of conflict. Which means, at its heart, that ghosting is about wanting to avoid confrontation, avoid difficult conversations, avoid hurting someone's feelings.

To learn more about how all that avoidance can increase your anxiety and the amount of conflict in your life, keep reading.

It's important to distinguish the "ghosting" phenomenon from escaping an unsafe or abusive relationship. You have every right to escape the latter without further communication, in whatever way keeps you physically and emotionally safe. However, if your motivation for disappearing is avoidance, then you might want to consider a better way to break up.

Scientific studies on ghosting show it's costly for both parties

Relationship research shows that ghosting (a.k.a. avoidance) is the worst way to end a relationship, according to the recipient, and can actually lead to bigger confrontations down the line. While ghosting seems to have become pervasive over the last decade, and many people point to more online dating apps and fading decorum around courting as causes -- ghosting is nothing new.

According to a study on preferred relationship ending strategies conducted in the 1970s, when one person ends a relationship through avoidance, it's likely to trigger more anger and hurt for the recipient.

Surprisingly, avoidance also costs the ghost much more in the long run, because frustrated recipients often track down and confront the ghost, sometimes in embarrassing situations like at work or in front of family.

For someone who chose to avoid conflict in the first place, a showdown is the worst outcome a ghost could hope for--and it ends up being more destructive for both parties than just initially communicating during a breakup. The study also explains the lasting cost of guilt that a ghost feels, finding that "even if the other party passively accepts the avoidance action, the terminator faces the lingering cost of knowing that he or she took the coward's way out of the relationship."

Avoiding conflict reinforces anxiety

Most people don't look forward to tough conversations, and breaking up certainly falls in that category. Fear of disappointing someone, looking like the "bad guy," or dealing with someone's direct anger can cause anxiety. But the more you avoid conflict, the more anxiety builds over time.

Each time you think about having a tough conversation, your anxiety and fear of conflict take over, and you avoid the conversation to suppress your fear.

The more you back down from your anxiety, the more likely you are to avoid anxiety-producing situations in the future. In fact, a frequent ghost is probably avoiding conflicts throughout their relationship. And many of the issues they avoid are likely problems that might have been sorted out through open communication.

By working to overcome fear of conflict, you can reduce anxiety, and build courage and communication skills that are important in many types of relationships--from friendships to the workplace. Here's how to overcome your fear of conflict:

Practice with someone safe to face your fear

One of the best ways to confront your fear of conflict is with a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) technique called exposure. Exposure means putting yourself into the situation you fear in real-life to gradually lessen your usual anxious responses to the situation. You don't have to tackle the scariest conversations first. Build up to the toughest ones -- like relationship discussions -- by practicing with someone you trust and feel comfortable around, like a close friend or family member. If you struggle with disagreements, you can start by expressing your opinions about impersonal things like a movie or a restaurant when they differ from your friends' thoughts.

Confronting your fears gets easier the more you do it. So, after practicing with someone safe, you'll be ready to start exposing yourself to more difficult conversations. These could include small disagreements with your significant other. Over time, you'll conquer your fear of conflict and tendency to avoid hard conversations.

Take care of yourself

Exposure will probably be uncomfortable or difficult, so take care of yourself before and after. Breakups can also be as hard on the person ending the relationship as the person being broken up with. You may feel guilt over initiating a breakup, or even guilt over your sadness it ended, since you initiated the split. Keep in mind that caring about someone and wanting to be in a relationship with them are separate things.

After exposure or a difficult relationship discussion, try taking a relaxing 10-minute walk, practicing a breathing exercise, or enjoying a long bath. Give yourself credit for confronting your fear.

To uncover the thoughts contributing to your fear of conflict and learn how to challenge them, try a free 7-day trial of Lantern here. You'll be paired with a professional coach that can guide you through anxiety-reducing techniques, or listen and give you feedback on your specific relationship concerns.

-- Maya Borgueta, Psy.D and Senior Coach at Lantern

This article first appeared on Lantern's blog, which shares expert advice and research on strengthening emotional well-being.


The Psychology of a Fanboy: Why You Keep Buying the Same Stuff

None of us want to admit it, but chances are we're all fanboys of something. Whether it's a particular brand of software, gadget, or anything else, we often rally behind companies and ideologies without even realizing it. Here's why we become fanboys and how to prevent it from happening to you.

By definition, a fanboy (or fangirl) is someone who defends their favorite phone/politician/city/browser/OS/game/console/genre/etc. while attacking everything else. Whether it's the blind trust in the next iPhone, a rallying argument about President Reagan, or a fervent argument for the PS4 over the Xbox One, we like to pick sides and stick to them. This alone is obnoxious, but it causes more than just minor annoyances: it means we attach ourselves to brands and can't think critically about the choices we make when shopping.

As a result we waste money and buy crappy products based solely on who makes them. There's no single reason this happens, but we do know a few things about basic human nature that explains why a lot of people tend to become fanboys.

Social Identity Theory Colors Your Worldview

All kinds of factors play into fanboyism, but there's one theory that explains where it starts: social identity theory . Social identity theory suggests that your idea of self-concept is derived from the social group you identify with. When you're part of a group, you're more likely to sympathize and treat other members of the group with rewards. Essentially, it helps you define "us" and "them," which our brain likes to do.

We define ourselves into groups in all kinds of ways, but one way is through the stuff we own. In The Psychologist, it's suggested that our association with our belongings changes us at a neural level , and that eventually transfers over to our group as a whole:

From a neural perspective, this absorption of objects into self-identity may be more than mere metaphor. In 2010, Kyungmi Kim and Marcia Johnson scanned participants’ brains as they allocated objects to a container marked as ‘mine’, imagining that they were going to own them, or to a container marked with someone else’s name. Extra activity was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPC) in response to the sight of ‘owned’ items, compared with control items allocated to others. The same area of MPC was activated when participants rated how much various adjectives described their own personality. ‘Areas of the brain that are known to be involved in thinking about the self also appear to be involved when we create associations between external things and ourselves through ownership,’ says Kim.

Like a uniform, our possession of specific objects and brands can also signal our membership of social groups, both to others and to ourselves. The success of the Apple brand has been attributed in part to people’s desire to show that they belong to a consumer tribe with connotations of ‘coolness’.

Why does this matter in terms of fanboys? When we're part of that group, we'll defend our group with everything we've got. Psychologist Jamie Madigan explains how this works in the context of game consoles :

Part of who you are—and how you communicate that to others—is defined by what groups you belong to. And we naturally want to belong to high-status groups, right? Okay, fine, but everything is relative a group isn’t high status unless there’s a low status group for it to be contrasted against. So not only do some people identify themselves as Xbox fans, they attack PlayStation owners in order to raise their status. This tendency is human nature, the researchers concluded, and a lot of other data support them. What’s more, we’re perfectly willing to do it at the drop of a hat.

These put-downs aren’t always a conscious choice, but once we pick a side, whether it's Windows vs OS X , Xbox vs Playstation, paid vs free software , or whatever else , we're going to create an "other." Once we do that, we're already accidentally on our way to fanboyism.

Mac vs. Windows: Your Best Arguments

The war between Mac and Windows devotees has been raging for decades, and last week we asked you to


‘We Won’

Sports fans tend to say “we” won, and by “we,” they don’t mean themselves, personally. The closer you identify with your team, the more likely you are to BIRG, “Bask In Reflected Glory”. In contrast, “CORF-ing” means that you “Cut Off Reflected Failure.” After a big loss some fans want to distance themselves from ‘their disgrace’ as much as possible. It’s not “we,” who lost, it’s “them!”

Of course the clear objective of every sports team is to win – or at least compete for the championship. But reality is: only one team will win the championship. In the sports industry winning and losing are inevitable. This is why sports organizations should consistently place match results in more than just a winning context, especially because satisfaction with the outcome of the games has very little to do with the loyalty of fans. Hardcore sports fans will hold onto the passion for their team no matter what. There are examples of winning teams that have attracted fewer fans than mediocre or even losing teams able to maintain a healthy fan base. So while CORF-ing and BIRK-ing might explain why the most successful teams usually enjoy a large fan base, they do not explain why some of these – loosing – teams still have any fans left.


When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call a suicide hotline if you have thoughts of suicide.

Call your health care provider if you feel overwhelmed by stress, or if it is affecting your health. Also call your provider if you notice new or unusual symptoms.

Reasons you may want to seek help are:

  • You have feelings of panic, such as dizziness, rapid breathing, or a racing heartbeat.
  • You are unable to work or function at home or at your job.
  • You have fears that you cannot control.
  • You are having memories of a traumatic event.

Your provider may refer you to a mental health care provider. You can talk to this professional about your feelings, what seems to make your stress better or worse, and why you think you are having this problem. You may also work on developing ways to reduce stress in your life.


Psychology

The increased stress of competitions can cause athletes to react both physically and mentally to affect their performance abilities negatively. They may become tense, their heart rates race, they break into a cold sweat, worry about the outcome of the competition, they find it hard to concentrate on the task at hand.

This has led coaches to take an increasing interest in the field of sports psychology and in particular in the area of competitive anxiety. That interest has focused on techniques that athletes can use in the competitive situation to maintain control and optimise their performance. Once learned, these techniques allow the athlete to relax and focus his/her attention positively on preparing for and participating in the competition. Psychology is another weapon in the athlete's armoury in gaining the winning edge. To know more about an athlete's psychological abilities, a free reading regarding custom psychic can be a great help.

The 4C's

Concentration, confidence, control and commitment (the 4C's) are generally considered the main mental qualities important for successful performance in most sports.

  • Concentration - ability to maintain focus
  • Confidence - believe in one's abilities
  • Control - the ability to maintain emotional control regardless of distraction
  • Commitment - ability to continue working to agreed goals

The techniques of relaxation, centring and mental imagery can assist an athlete in achieving the 4C's.

Concentration

This is the mental quality to focus on the task at hand. If the athlete lacks concentration, then their athletic abilities will not be effectively or efficiently applied to the task. Research has identified the following types of attention focus:

  • Broad Narrow continuum - the athlete focuses on a large or small number of stimuli
  • Internal External continuum - the athlete focuses on internal stimuli (feelings) or external stimuli (ball)

The demand for concentration varies with the sport:

  • Sustained concentration - distance running, cycling, tennis, squash
  • Short bursts of concentration - cricket, golf, shooting, athletic field events
  • Intense concentration - sprinting events, bobsleigh, skiing

Common distractions are anxiety, mistakes, fatigue, weather, public announcements, coach, manager, opponent, negative thoughts etc.

Strategies to improve concentration are very personal. One way to maintain focus is to set process goals for each session or competition. The athlete will have an overall goal for which the athlete will identify several process goals that help focus on specific aspects of the task. For each of these goals, the athlete can use a trigger word (a word which instantly refocuses the athlete's concentration to the goal), e.g. sprinting technique requires the athlete to focus on being tall, relaxed, smooth and to drive with the elbows - trigger word could be "technique".

Athletes will develop a routine for a competition that may include the night before, the morning, pre-competition, competition and post-competition routines. If these routines are appropriately structured, then they can prove a useful aid to concentration.

Confidence

Confidence results from the comparison an athlete makes between the goal and their ability. The athlete will have self-confidence if they believe they can achieve their goal. (Comes back to a quote of mine - "You only achieve what you believe").

When an athlete has self-confidence, they will tend to: persevere even when things are not going to plan, show enthusiasm, be positive in their approach and take their share of the responsibility in success and fail.

To improve their self-confidence, an athlete can use mental imagery to:

  • visualise previous good performance to remind them of the look and feel
  • imagine various scenarios and how they will cope with them

Proper goal setting (challenging yet realistic) can bring feelings of success. If athletes can see that they are achieving their short-term goals and moving towards their long-term goals, then confidence grows.

Confidence is a positive state of mind and a belief that you can meet the challenge ahead - a feeling of being in control. It is not the situation that directly affects confidence thoughts, assumptions and expectations can build or destroy confidence.

  • Thoughts - positive thoughts of success
  • Feelings - excited, anticipation, calm, elation, prepared
  • Focus - on self, on the task
  • Behaviour - give maximum effort and commitment, willing to take chances, positive reaction to setbacks, open to learning, take responsibility for outcomes
  • Thoughts - negative, defeat or failure, doubt
  • Feelings - tense, dread, fear. not wanting to take part
  • Focus - on others, on less relevant factors (coach, umpire, conditions)
  • Behaviour - lack of effort, likely to give up, unwilling to take risks (rather play safe), blame others or conditions for an outcome

Control

Identifying when an athlete feels a particular emotion and understanding the reason for the feelings is essential in helping an athlete gain emotional control. An athlete's ability to maintain control of their feelings in the face of adversity and remain positive is vital to successful performance. Two emotions that are often associated with poor performance are anxiety and anger.

Anxiety comes in two forms - Physical (butterflies, sweating, nausea, needing the toilet) and Mental (worry, negative thoughts, confusion, lack of concentration). Relaxation is a technique that can be used to reduce anxiety.

When an athlete becomes angry, the cause of anger often becomes the focus of attention. This leads to a lack of concentration on the task, performance deteriorates, and confidence in ability is lost, which fuels the anger - a slippery slope to failure.

Commitment

Sports performance depends on the athlete being fully committed to many goals over many years. In competition with these goals, the athlete will have many aspects of daily life to manage. The many competing interests and commitments include work, studies, family/partner, friends, social life and other hobbies/sports.

Within the athlete's sport, commitment can be undermined by:

  • a perceived lack of progress or improvement
  • not being sufficiently involved in developing the training program
  • not understanding the objectives of the training program
  • injury
  • lack of enjoyment
  • anxiety about performance - competition
  • becoming bored
  • coach and athlete not working as a team
  • lack of commitment by other athletes

Setting goals with the athlete will raise their feelings of value, give them joint ownership of the goals, and become more committed to achieving them. All goals should be SMARTER.

Many people (coach, medical support team, manager, friends, etc.) can contribute to an athlete's commitment levels with appropriate levels of support and positive feedback, especially during times of injury, illness and poor performance.

Successful emotional states

The following are emotional states experienced with successful performance:

  • Happy - felt that this was my opportunity to demonstrate excellent performance. Thought I could beat anybody.
  • Calm and nervous - Felt nervous but really at ease with these feelings. I accepted and expected to be nervous but felt ready to start.
  • Anxious but excited - Felt so ready to compete but a little nervous. Nerves and excitement come together
  • Confident - I remembered all the successful training sessions and previous best performances

Psychology Skills Training

Psychology skills training for the athlete should aim to improve their mental skills, such as self-confidence, motivation, the ability to relax under high pressure, and the ability to concentrate and usually has three phases:

  • Education phase, during which athletes learn about the importance of psychological skills and how they affect performance
  • Acquisition phase, during which athletes learn about the strategies and techniques to improve the specific psychological skills that they require
  • Practice phase, during which athletes develop their psychological skills through repeated practice, simulations, and actual competition.

You can get free, instant access to my Sports Mental Toughness Handbook right now. Go Here.

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1 Mark Questions

Question 1.
What is sports psychology?
OR
Define sports psychology.
Answer:
Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human F behaviour on the playfield, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.

Question 2.
Define personality.
Answer:
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “The totality of sentiments, attitude, idea, habits, skills and behaviours of an individual is personality.

Question 3.
What are coping strategies?
Answer:
Coping strategies are a conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems. They are of two types problem-focused coping . and emotion-focused coping.

Question 4.
What do you understand by aggression in sports?
Answer:
In sports, aggression means the desire to harm another player which is not within the laws of the game. For example, pushing another player over a game in football or using abusive language for other players or teams,

Question 5.
What is motivation?
Answer:
Motivation means to be inspired to do something a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction.

Question 6.
What are the types of motivation?
Answer:
There are two types of motivation

Question 7.
What is intrinsic motivation? Delhi 2016
Answer:
This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.

Question 8.
How extrinsic’motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
Answer:
Extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation sometimes because the physical appearance of something has more influence on the mind of an athlete.

3 Marks Questions

Question 9.
What is the importance of sports psychology?
Answer:
The importance of sports psychology can be understood from the following’points

  • It analyses the behaviour of sportsmen.
  • It identifies talent for specific sport’s.
  • It creates a better learning situation.
  • It stabilises the performance of a sportsperson for a longer period.
  • It is important from the research point of view.
  • It encourages the players to make a comeback in professional sports.

Question 10.
Explain any two techniques to manage stress.
Answer:
Two techniques to manage stress are –

  1. Aim to Exercise Regularly Exercise dissipates the adrenaline that builds up in stressful situations and leaves us with a feeling or sense of achievement and control.
  2. Eat Healthy Ensure that you are getting adequate vitamins and minerals in your diet. One recommendation that very few of us manage to follow is to eat 5 servings of fruit and vegetables every day.

Question 11.
What are the types of personality as given by Sheldon?
Answer:
The personality types on the basis of physical attributes are given by William Herbert Sheldon. These are as follows

  1. Endomorph The endomorph is physically quite round, with wide hips, narrow shoulders, which makes them pear-shaped. Lot of fat is spread across the body. They are sociable, fun-loving, tolerant, even-tempered, good-humoured, relaxed and love food.
  2. Ectomorph They are quite the opposite of endomorph. They have narrow shoulders and hips, thin, narrow face, high forehead, thin, narrow chest and very little body fat. They are self-conscious, private, introvert, socially anxious, intense, emotionally restrained and thoughtful.
  3. Mesomorph They are somewhere between endomorph and ectomorph. They have large head, broad shoulders, narrow waist (wedge-shaped), muscular body, strong limbs and little body fat. They are well proportioned. They are adventurous, courageous, assertive, bold, competitive, with a desire to dominate, take risk, rise to power.

Question 12.
What are the personality types as formulated by Carl Jung?
Answer:
The personality type on mental basis is formulated by Carl Jung.
These are as follows

  1. Extroverts Have more self-confidence, take more interest in others, are outgoing, lively and realistic. They are very social and form friends quite easily. Actors, social and political leaders etc belong to this group.
  2. Introverts Are too self-conscious, more interested in their own thoughts and ideas, self-centred, shy, reserved and lovers of solitude. They do not make friends easily and keep in the background on social occasions. Philosophers, poets, artists and scientists belong to this class.
  3. Ambiverts Doubting whether people can be divided into these two extremes, he put most of the people in this category and they have been labelled as ‘ambiverts.’ The ambiverts are a mixture of both the extremes in a balanced manner. Ambiverts are neither outgoing nor reserved to themselves. They are able to adjust themselves to any situation.

Question 13.
Explain the type of aggression in sports.
Answer:
There are two types of aggression in sports

  1. Instrumental Aggression It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is directed at the target as a means to an end. For example, injuring a player to gain a competitive advantage or stopping an opponent from scoring.
  2. Hostile Aggression It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is aimed toward another person who has angered or provoked the individual and is an end in itself. For example, hitting an opponent who has just been aggressive against the player. It is generally proceeded by anger.

Question 14.
Explain two techniques of motivation.
Answer:
Two techniques of motivation are

  1. Level of Aspiration/ Goal Setting As we know that achieving performance goals is a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, it is necessary to set realistic goals based on one’s own abilities.
  2. Identifying Incentive Factors If an athlete perceives that any particular kind of experiences are available to him in a given sport and he feels that these will be pleasant, enjoyable or satisfying, then he will choose to participate in that game or sport and not any other.

Question 15.
Explain goal setting as a technique of motivation in brief. CBSE 2012
Answer:
Goal setting technique is one of the most important techniques of motivation. If you do not set a goal, you cannot achieve an apex position in life. A person should set goals according to one’s capabilities on a regular basis. Coaches should not be too rigid while setting goals for a sportsperson. There should be some flexibility in their approach.

Question 16.
What is meant by motivation? Explain the different techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports. All India 2017
Answer:
Motivation is a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction.
Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are

  1. Knowing Your Athlete Each athlete comes from a different background with varied experiences and having different degrees of maturity.
  2. Level of Aspiration/ Goal Setting As we know that achieving performance goals is a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, it is necessary to set realistic goals based on one’s own abilities.
  3. Identifying Incentive Factors If an athlete perceives that any particular kind of experiences are available to him in a given sport and he feels that these will be pleasant, enjoyable or satisfying, then he will choose to participate in that game or, sport and not any other.

5 Marks Questions

Question 17.
Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports.
Answer:
Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human behaviour on the playfield, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.
Importance of sports psychology is due to

  1. Analysing the Behaviour of Sportsmen Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.
  2. Identifying Talent for Specific Sports Every sport has specific psychological demands e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.
  3. Stabilising the Performance for Longer Period It helps in stabilising the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological makeup and anxiety level.
  4. Important from Research Point of View Sports psychologists work in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the erformance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.
  5. Encouraging the Players to Make a Comeback in Professional Sports Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.

Question 18.
Explain the structure of personality.
Describe the role of sports in developing the personality, (Delhi 2016)
Answer:
The word personality is derived from Latin word persona meaning the mask. In ancient Greece, the actors used to wear masks to hide their identities while portraying their roles in a theatrical play.

To an ordinary person the word personality conveys the meaning of one’s physical appearance, his habits, his ways of dressing, his reputation, his manners and other similar characteristics.

So, personality basically reveals the psychological make-up of ah individual through his behaviour. In fact, it is the quality of a person’s total behaviour. Physical activities and sports play an important role in the development of personality of an individual.

One of the primary and apparent aspects of one’s personality is one’s physical appearance. Children, as well as adults, boys as well as girls, all, are very much concerned about how they look. Physical activities are conducive to the growth and development of the physique. Robust and athletic physique does enhance one’s personality. Poise, grace, agility and the manner one carries oneself have a great impact on one’s personality.

Question 19.
Participation in sport results in the all-round development of personality. Justify.
Answer:
Games and sports are essential for the all- round development of personality.
It is by participating in games and sports that we can develop and maintain our health, keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. Participation increases blood circulation and we get an increased supply of oxygen. This makes a person healthier. Only a healthy person can work long, hard and cheerfully.

An unhealthy person may not take as much interest in work. Games and sports have additional benefits to exercise as they are played in groups and in a healthy competitive spirit.

Among many other things, they help develop cooperation, quality of leadership, team spirit and a willingness to submit to, and further, the rule of law. Games instil in participants the spirit of self-reliance, justice, fair play and sporting spirit. They make people bold, adventurous, social, disciplined and more conscious of their responsibilities towards society and the nation. People participating regularly in games and sports have been found better equipped to fight superstitions, communalism, obscurantism and a narrow approach to issues of national interest.

Games also help in overcoming feelings of violence, arrogance and superiority as these are purged by providing them a sufficient outlet through them. A sportsperson may not lose his or her temper and morale even in the face of defeat because he/she would take it coolly, calmly and then would try to perform better the next time.

Players know that victory and defeat are two aspects of the same coin. There is more joy in playing than in its end result. Thus, participation in sport results in the all-round development of personality.

Question 20.
Define stress. How stress can be tackled by the players? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
Answer:
Stress can be defined as a physical, mental or emotional demand, which tends to disturb the homeostasis of the body.” Stress is experienced when individuals feel that they cannot cope with a situation with which they are presented.

If athletes are in a stressful situation, then their athletic performance will be affected. This stress may arise because of commitments in the areas of work, study, sports, family and social life. When commitments in a number of areas coincide, then stress can arise. By proper planning, the stress can be tackled or reduced. Some steps can be taken to reduce stress.

  • Exercise Regularly Regular exercise can control stressful situation.
  • Eat Healthy Balanced diet enriched with vitamins and minerals should be taken.
  • Get Enough Sleep Get enough sleep for proper rest and sleeping hours may vary person to person.
  • Accept Mistake and Set Realistic Goals Learn from mistakes and set realistic achievable goals.
  • Knowing your Own Strength and Weakness Accept your own drawbacks and strength and plan the action according to it.
  • Better Time Management Better time management saves time and helps to pre-plan the programme which ultimately can reduce stress.

Following these steps, a player can easily tackle stress in his life.

Value-Based Question

Question 21.
Your friend is under a lot of stress as he is not able to take even a single wicket in cricket match series. Suggest ways by which you can help him to come out of stress.
Answer:
There are two ways by which I can help him to come out of stress. First is by adopting a problem-focused coping strategy, in which I will ask him to find the root cause of his problem such as to check the bowling speed, pace, style and length of delivery. Then suggest him to find out ways of improving it. For this, he can take help of his coach. Second is by adopting the emotion-focused coping strategy.

Here I will ask him to disengage from that situation by doing some new activity or simply relaxing, watching TV, take him to movies, listen to music etc.

1 Mark Questions
Question.1. What is anxiety? [CBSE2013]
Answer. Anxiety is a disturbed state of the body or an unrealistic and unpleasant state of body and mind. It,is accompanied by nervousness, restlessness, increased heart rate, sweating, drying of the mouth, apprehension of danger, fear and rapid shallow breathing.

Question.2. What is ethics in sports?
Answer. Ethics is a branch or subdiscipline of philosophy called axiology, the study of values. Ethics in sports means to have an ideal conduct and knowledge of good and evil and what should be done and not to be done by a person.
Ethical behaviour in sports includes:

  1. sportsmanship
  2. good character
  3. fair play
  4. cooperative and self- disciplined behaviour

Question.3. What is sports psychology?
Or
Define sports psychology.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training/competitions.

Question.4.What is motivation?
Answer.Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a person to make constant effort.

Question.5.What are the types of motivation?
Answer.(i) Internal or natural (intrinsic) motivation.
(ii) External or artificial (extrinsic) motivation

Question.6.Define anxiety in one sentence.
Answer.Anxiety is a chronic fear that limits our ability to carry out normal functions.

Question.7.What is intrinsic motivation?
Answer.This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.

Question.8.What are the causes and symptoms of anxiety in sports?
Answer.Causes:

  1. Feeling restlessness
  2. Muscular tension
  3. Nervousness
  4. Headache
  5. Increased BP
  6. Confusion

Question.9.How extrinsic motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation?
Answer.Extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation sometimes because the physical appearance of something has more influence on the mind of an athlete.

Question.10.What do you understand by self-esteem?
Answer.Self-esteem means how you value and respect yourself as a person. It is the real opinion you have of yourself. It impacts how you take care of yourself physically, emotionally and spiritually.

3 Marks Questions
Question.11. Explain any three causes of anxiety.
Answer. The various causes of anxiety are (any three):

  1. Uncertainty about Result Competitions provide challenge and stimulation. It is in the field of unpredictability. The outcome is not known. One is under pressure for one’s achievements.
  2. Level of Competition The more important the contest, the greater is the stress or level of anxiety for that particular competition.
  3. Expectations of Spectators The spectators have a huge role or impact on how athletes feel. The expectations are more when it is a home venue.
  4. Possibility of Getting Hurt This can be a source of anxiety, especially in games like boxing, martial arts, gymnastics etc because the chances of injury are more.
  5. Expectations of Success Some athletes take up the challenge and are psyched up to perform better and get success, whereas some are not coming upto the expectations and are psyched-out, which causes failure.

Question.12. Explain goal setting as a technique of motivation in brief. [CBSE 2012]
Answer. Goal setting technique is one of the most important techniques of motivation. If you do not set a goal, you cannot achieve an apex position in life. A person should set goals according to one’s capabilities on a regular basis. Coaches should not be too rigid while setting goals for a sportsperson. There should be some flexibility in their approach.

Question.13. Explain two techniques of motivation.
Answer. Two techniques of motivation are:

  1. Goal Setting Sportsmen should be encouraged to set a few ambitious but achievable long-term as well as medium-term goals, e.g. if a person wants to get a good position or a medal in Olympic Games, he should also set the goals for getting a position in Asian or National Games.
  2. Elaborate Arrangement of Competition Sports persons perform better in competitions if there are elaborate arrangements of competition. However, an inexperienced sportsperson may not be able to put up a good show.

Question.14. What is the importance of sports psychology?
Answer. The importance of sports psychology can be understood from the following points:

  1. It analyses the behaviour of sportsmen.
  2. It identifies talent for specific sports.
  3. It creates a better learning situation.
  4. It stabilises the performance of a sportsperson for a longer period.
  5. It is important from the research point of view.
  6. It encourages the players to perform better.

Question.15. Explain any three techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports.
Answer.Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are

  1. Healthy Sports Environment A healthy sports environment plays a vital role in motivating the sportsperson. Healthy sport environment consists of proper humidity and temperature, smooth and clean sports fields, good quality of sports equipment and other facilities. .
  2. Positive Attitude For proper motivation, the coaches should try to encourage positive attitude among sportspersons. Players must think positively.
  3. Cash Prizes, Certificates and Trophies These are good incentives to sportspersons. Governments offer cash prizes to sportspersons who win.

Question.16. What is the role of anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety plays an important role in sports. It is an essential ingredient of any competitive situation. Anxiety levels differ from athlete to athlete and from situation to situation. Athletes learn how to cope with stressful and competitive situations and manage anxiety with or assistance from a coach, otherwise they would not be able to give outstanding performances.

Question.17. How can you manage anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety can be managed by:

  1. Keeping cool
  2. Yogic meditation
  3. Biofeedback
  4. Following a behaviour modification strategy
  5. Progressive relaxation breathing technique
  6. Somatic adjustment (control of cognitive processes)
  7. Guidance from a technically trained sports psychologist

Question.18. What are general sports ethics?
Answer. Sports ethics means the code of conduct of players, coaches, supervisors and administrators of various organisations. Ethics such as honesty, fairplay, obedience of rules, discipline and many moral behaviours are developed through participation.
Some common ethics related to sports are:

  1. Winning and losing gracefully.
  2. Getting recognition, name and fame without using unfair means.
  3. Loyalty towards his/her team, game, institution or country.

Question.19. What principles should be followed for goal setting?
Answer. Principles to be followed for goal setting are:

  1. Make goals specific, measurable, and observable.
  2. Clearly identify time constraints.
  3. Use moderately difficult goals they are superior to either easy or very difficult goals.
  4. Write goals down and regularly monitor progress.
  5. Use a mix of process, performance, and outcome goals.
  6. Use short range goals to achieve long range goals.
  7. Set team as well as individual performance goals.
  8. Set practice as well as competition goals.
  9. Make sure goals are internalised by the athlete.
  10. Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting.

Question.20. Explain any two techniques to manage stress.
Answer. Two techniques to manage stress are:

  1. Participation in Physical Activities Physical exercises of moderate to high intensity, like aerobic exercises, are one of the”best methods to relieve stress. Physically fit persons are more resistant to the effects of stress than others.
  2. Achieve a High Level of Physical Fitness Achieving fitness is important to manage stress advantageously, while not eliminating it totally. Too little or too severe stress both lower performance in sports.

5 Marks Questions
Question.21. Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training or competitions.
Importance of Sports Psychology is due to :

  1. Learning of Motor Skills Sports psychology plays a major role in the learning of motor skills. Motor skills learning depends on the dividual’s level of readiness.
  2. Analysing the Behaviour of Sportsmen Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.
  3. Identifying Talent for Specific Sports Every sports has specific psychological demands, e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.
  4. Stabilising the Performance for Longer Period It helps in stabilising the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological make up and anxiety level.
  5. Important from Research Point of View Sports psychologists works in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the performance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.
  6. Encouraging the Players to Make a Comeback in Professional Sports Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.

Question.22. What is motivation? Explain different types of motivation.
Answer. Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a man to make constant effort.
According to Crook and Stein, “Motivation is any condition that might energise and direct our action.”
Types of Motivation
There are two types of motivation:

  1. Intrinsic Motivation This motivation is within an individual and guides him/her to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social need etc. It also depends upon knowledge of result, personal factor, competition zeal etc. He/she participates in sports for his/her own sake.
  2. Extrinsic Motivation This motivation depends upon environmental factors. It has a great impact on an individual’s performance. It is of various types like rewards, punishment, active participation, test evaluation, teaching methods, equipment and surroundings etc.

Question.23. Participation in sport results in all-round development of personality. Justify.
Answer. Games and sports are essential for the all- round development of personality. It is by participating in games and sports that we can develop and maintain our health, keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. Participation increases blood circulation and we get an increased supply of oxygen. This makes a person healthier. Only a healthy person can work long, hard and cheerfully. An unhealthy person may not take as much interest in work.
Games and sports have additional benefits to exercise as they are played in groups and in a healthy competitive spirit. Among many other things, they help develop cooperation, quality of leadership, team spirit and a willingness to submit to, and further, the rule of law. Games instil in participants the spirit of self-reliance, justice, fair play and sporting spirit. They make people bold, adventurous, social, disciplined and more conscious of their responsibilities towards society and the nation. People participating regularly in games and sports have been found better equipped to fight superstitions, communalism, obscurantism and a narrow approach to issues of national interest.
Games also help in overcoming feelings of violence, arrogance and superiority as these are purged by providing them a sufficient outlet through them. A sports person may not lose his or her temper and morale even in the face of defeat because he/ she would take it coolly, calmly and then would try to perform better the next time. Players know that victory and defeat are two aspects of the same coin. There is more joy in playing than in its end result. Thus, participation in sport results in all-round development of personality.

We hope the Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports help you. If you have any query regarding Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 11 Psychology and Sports, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.



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