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Regarding a mental disorder of finding pleasure and lose attraction

Regarding a mental disorder of finding pleasure and lose attraction



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Say, a man is trying to find pleasure in doing something. he assumes he can have pleasure with playing, but just a while after start playing he feels definitely it can give him some pleasure. At that moment he stops playing and start finding for new form work/person/object/topic that can give him pleasure. It's not his/her fear to have the pleasure but it's like okay, anytime he can come back and have this any moment, a mean of it's in stock. But he never comes back until the feelings has been forgotten.

Is there a name of this type of disorder?


Narcissistic personality disorder

Someone with an inflated ego, need for constant praise and lack of empathy for others might sound like a shoe-in for psychotherapy. But the introduction of narcissistic personality disorder into the DSM in 1980 was not without controversy.

The biggest problem was that no one could agree on who had the disorder. Up to half of people diagnosed with a narcissistic personality also met the criteria for other personality disorders, like histrionic personality disorder or borderline personality disorder, according to a 2001 review in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling. Which diagnosis they got seemed almost arbitrary.

To solve the problem, the American Psychiatric Association has proposed big changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 in 2010. The new edition would move away from specific personality disorders to a system of dysfunctional types and traits. The idea, according to the APA, is to cut out the overlap and create categories that would be useful for patients who have personality problems, not just full-blown disorders.


What Causes Sexual Issues?

Sexual intimacy can be satisfying and fulfilling. But for some, sex does not bring pleasure. Sexual issues may come from negative feelings or trauma. These can prevent someone from taking part in sexual intimacy. Sex therapist Jill Denton explains, "Each of us possesses a unique model of sexuality, formed at least in part by incoming family messages, childhood abuse or neglect, culture, the media, and, of course, religious influences." These messages may disrupt healthy intimacy.

Sexual problems can also surface due to a mental health issue. Physical or medical concerns can also cause problems with sex.

Mental health issues that may cause sexual issues include:

Physical issues that can impact sex or sexual expression include:

  • Bowel or urinary problems
  • Diabetes
  • Heart and vascular issues
  • Medication side-effects imbalance

For women, hormone issues may come from pregnancy, childbirth, or menopause.


Magical Thinking

Magical thinking is the belief that one’s own thoughts, wishes, or desires can influence the external world. It is common in very young children. A four-year-old child, for example, might believe that after wishing for a pony, one will appear at his or her house. Magical thinking is also colloquially used to refer more broadly to mystical, magical thoughts, such as the belief in Santa Claus, supernatural entities, and miraculous occurrences.

Magical Thinking and Child Development
Toddlers and preschoolers often engage in pretend play. This allows them to test out new identities, to develop theories about the ways other people think, and to practice social skills. Magical thinking tends to coincide with this pretend play, and young children often have fantastical beliefs about what can and cannot happen. Magical thinking tends to fade as children begin to master concepts of logic and cause and effect. Older children may periodically deviate into magical thinking, but reality-based thinking dominates. In adults, magical thinking can be a sign of a mental health condition. However, some cultures encourage magical thinking about certain things. For example, a tribal religion might encourage members to believe that carrying around a fetish will cause it to rain. This sort of magical thinking is not symptomatic of mental illness because it is part of a cultural norm.

Magical Thinking and Mental Illness
Magical thinking is not in itself a mental illness, but is correlated with some mental health conditions. People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) engage in a type of magical thinking. Obsessive thoughts cause them to engage in compulsions in an attempt to stave off the thoughts. People with OCD may intellectually know that, say, repeatedly tapping a television will not keep them safe, but still feel an overwhelming urge to do so. People diagnosed with schizophrenia and delusional disorders may also experience bouts of magical thinking.

  1. American Psychological Association. APA concise dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009. Print.
  2. Colman, A. M. (2006). Oxford dictionary of psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

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Allison R

My daughter is now 14. I am inquiring about her early diagnosis of magical thinking and how to help her now

The GoodTherapy.org Team

Thank you for your comment. If you would like to get in touch with a therapist for your daughter, you can search our directory for mental health professionals in your area here: https://www.goodtherapy.org/advanced-search.html. To specifically see therapists who work with adolescents, please select Children and Teens from the drop-down menu on that page. From there, you can get in touch with therapists and find the right fit for working with a teen regarding magical thinking.

Please keep in mind that GoodTherapy.org is an exclusive directory. If you have trouble finding a professional in your area, don’t be discouraged–it may mean you’ll have better luck doing a Google search or asking for a referral from a trusted health professional, such as your doctor.

Wishing you and your daughter the very best in your search!

Kind regards,
The GoodTherapy.org Team

Allison R

The GoodTherapy.org Team

Graham C

Ive always been very anxious my whole life but recently have been expressing the symptoms of magical thinking. I take celexa and that helps but its always present to some degree. Anyways i can fix this?

Monica

I have magical thinking andSometimes it drives me crazy because i dont act like myself, i keep thinking that if i think like a certain way or i think about something, it ill happen or prevent from happening. I dont know if this is serious, but it gave me a hard time. My parents dont understand if i explain and im not sure if its serious and what to do.

Dean L

Just wondering, have you ever paid attention to how long you had been thinking certain thoughts (eg. days, weeks etc) and if any thing you wanted and/or feared came about that matched what you were thinking? Can you relate a couple? If nothing has as yet came about matching thoughts you were thinking could you mention one or two of those anyway?

Dillon

Woah! Calm down. This article is very alarmist. Readers, if you’re worried you or a loved one is magical thinking too much, don’t worry! It’s part of our culture. The article’s example of a tribesman is reductionist and insulting. Plenty of fully functional American/European adults practice magical thinking in the form of karma or mitzvah. It’s a completely normal thing and you should not worry about it so much. It’s the least and most benevolent symptom of any of the above mentioned mental illnesses. There is practically no correlation between magical thinking and OCD or schizophrenia compared to other major symptoms that cause disfunctionality.

Jessica G.

So if this is what magical thinking is, doesn’t that mean that people who believe in the book “the secret”, meditation, astral travel, or any type of mantra’s are also magical thinking? There are a few teachers out there who are teaching about “paradigm shifts” in your belief system and how that will change your life because you begin to see yourself and others differently and you begin to gain healing, freedom, prosperity etc. from this type of thinking. Isn’t that also magical thinking and why does it work? If you change your mind, how you think etc., you can change what you believe in.

Marqus M

Monica

I’m a firm believer in the law of attraction. I suffer from anxiety and mindfulness meditation and cognitive therapy has helped me deal with difficult situation. It actually does not teach me to change the world by the way I think. It teaches me to change the way I look at situations I cannot change differently. Seeing the silver lining in situation helps to problem solve. Mediating and being grateful teaches me to look at what’s good and not bad. There’s no hocus pocus.

Magical thinking is the belief that one can affect the world through *unrelated* actions (as if by magic), so the idea that changing your beliefs changes your perception and therefore how you act in the world is not “magical” because there is an obvious cause and effect there. Benign magical thinking that does not cause distress would be something like being superstitious. You don’t walk under ladders in case it causes bad luck, for example. This is magical because ladders and your relation to them cannot possibly have any effect on another part of your life (except maybe the possibility of something being dropped on you by someone at the top of the ladder!) That’s not a mental health condition and people use these magical thoughts all the time – some people have lucky charms or mascots, for example. It becomes a condition when it causes distress and starts to control the individual and the way they live. So someone with OCD may have the thought that their children will come to harm if they don’t tap the fridge three times every time they go by. The fear of losing their children then becomes an obsession where they constantly check and recheck – did I remember to tap the fridge? Maybe they then start to need to tap the table too, and then the walls, and then over time it becomes that they need to tap everything they touch three times or they will lose their children. This ritual then begins to take over their lives and they may find it difficult to function on a day-to-day basis because the tapping becomes all consuming.

Wendy

For me it was the rhythm don’t step on a crack or you’ll break your mother’s back. My mother was everything to me I would take hours to walk a block cause I couldn’t step on any cracks then it wasn’t just cracks in cement or pavement it was cracks in the ground. I couldn’t leave my house then it was cracks in the floor boards I couldn’t even see them but what if….. this is what they mean by magical thinking and it is a serious disorder that effects every part of your life.

This article isn’t actually exactly what magical thinking is, so don’t worry about it!

Matt D.

There’s a reason that books called a secret there’s a reason that concept has been kept a secret they will put you in the f****** luny bin if you talk about it too much. the law of attraction was kept a secret and the mental health institutions were one of the ways that they kept it secret.

Sorry but this is disturbed.

Sheila k.

I thnink in regards to magical thinking for disorders everyone needs to look at Dissociation and identity disorders. I had DID and I have a part that FAke Barbie – that definantly has or practices magical thinking – she doesn’t see anything she doesn’t want to – namely abuse and pain. she is Fake to the exstent that noboby knows how she really feels insde about herself. For every one who has had trauma in there childhood you need to get checked for DIssociative Identity Disorder- i had it 56 years and just last year finally someone diagnosed me right- you switch in and out of personalities that helped you survive the TRAUMA and it is al repressed – symtoms PTSD depression, Anxiety, moodd swings, BPD diagnosis or bipolar, sleep disturbances, nightmares, flashbacks, exstreme self hate, suicidal at times – test for Disociative Identity Disorders- don’t waist time in talk therapy you need a trauma expert- Magical thinking is a way to dissociate from reality – our parts are trapped in time capsuls of when we were injured, or wounded and abused – start researching DID disorders today if you suffer from 4 or more of the above symptoms – nobosy wants to diagnose this, and you live in sysmptom mangament until you can’t take it anymore! My brother commited suicide from the severe inner pain that is being repressed and hidden

Sharon h.

I have heard before that Donald Trump, president of the US, uses magical thinking and has done so for decades using a perfected technique involving alkaline water and a crystal. It appears to make him invisible or invincible and free to act, live, speak the way he wants and does – without repercussions. Once accepting this reality it dawned on me my next door neighbor, female, slandering anybody she doesn’t like which is accepted without thinking by many other neighbors, is doing same. Observing her, wondering how she gets away with her behavior all the time, finally made sense: magical thinking.

Rafael

Beyond textbook disorders of the mind, magic thinking tends to trap “bad people-” effigies, things we exclude from our ordinary lives, we only kindly know how to paint for children. It is important to maintain clear thinking in order to assert the right judgement, as there is always the relevant mode to keep on guard from repeating mistakes of the past.

“A four-year-old child, for example, might believe that after wishing for a pony, one will appear at his or her house.” This isn’t a good explanation of magical thinking and nowhere in this article does it tell us what magical thinking actually is. Others in the comments already did better!


Pedophilia: A Disorder, Not a Crime

CAMDEN, N.J. — THINK back to your first childhood crush. Maybe it was a classmate or a friend next door. Most likely, through school and into adulthood, your affections continued to focus on others in your approximate age group. But imagine if they did not.

By some estimates, 1 percent of the male population continues, long after puberty, to find themselves attracted to prepubescent children. These people are living with pedophilia, a sexual attraction to prepubescents that often constitutes a mental illness. Unfortunately, our laws are failing them and, consequently, ignoring opportunities to prevent child abuse.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders defines pedophilia as an intense and recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, and a disorder if it causes a person “marked distress or interpersonal difficulty” or if the person acts on his interests. Yet our laws ignore pedophilia until after the commission of a sexual offense, emphasizing punishment, not prevention.

Part of this failure stems from the misconception that pedophilia is the same as child molestation. One can live with pedophilia and not act on it. Sites like Virtuous Pedophiles provide support for pedophiles who do not molest children and believe that sex with children is wrong. It is not that these individuals are “inactive” or “nonpracticing” pedophiles, but rather that pedophilia is a status and not an act. In fact, research shows, about half of all child molesters are not sexually attracted to their victims.

A second misconception is that pedophilia is a choice. Recent research, while often limited to sex offenders — because of the stigma of pedophilia — suggests that the disorder may have neurological origins. Pedophilia could result from a failure in the brain to identify which environmental stimuli should provoke a sexual response. M.R.I.s of sex offenders with pedophilia show fewer of the neural pathways known as white matter in their brains. Men with pedophilia are three times more likely to be left-handed or ambidextrous, a finding that strongly suggests a neurological cause. Some findings also suggest that disturbances in neurodevelopment in utero or early childhood increase the risk of pedophilia. Studies have also shown that men with pedophilia have, on average, lower scores on tests of visual-spatial ability and verbal memory.

The Virtuous Pedophiles website is full of testimonials of people who vow never to touch a child and yet live in terror. They must hide their disorder from everyone they know — or risk losing educational and job opportunities, and face the prospect of harassment and even violence. Many feel isolated some contemplate suicide. The psychologist Jesse Bering, author of “Perv: The Sexual Deviant in All of Us,” writes that people with pedophilia “aren’t living their lives in the closet they’re eternally hunkered down in a panic room.”

While treatment cannot eliminate a pedophile’s sexual interests, a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication can help him to manage urges and avoid committing crimes.

But the reason we don’t know enough about effective treatment is because research has usually been limited to those who have committed crimes.

Our current law is inconsistent and irrational. For example, federal law and 20 states allow courts to issue a civil order committing a sex offender, particularly one with a diagnosis of pedophilia, to a mental health facility immediately after the completion of his sentence — under standards that are much more lax than for ordinary “civil commitment” for people with mental illness. And yet, when it comes to public policies that might help people with pedophilia to come forward and seek treatment before they offend, the law omits pedophilia from protection.

The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibit discrimination against otherwise qualified individuals with mental disabilities, in areas such as employment, education and medical care. Congress, however, explicitly excluded pedophilia from protection under these two crucial laws.

It’s time to revisit these categorical exclusions. Without legal protection, a pedophile cannot risk seeking treatment or disclosing his status to anyone for support. He could lose his job, and future job prospects, if he is seen at a group-therapy session, asks for a reasonable accommodation to take medication or see a psychiatrist, or requests a limit in his interaction with children. Isolating individuals from appropriate employment and treatment only increases their risk of committing a crime.

There’s no question that the extension of civil rights protections to people with pedophilia must be weighed against the health and safety needs of others, especially kids. It stands to reason that a pedophile should not be hired as a grade-school teacher. But both the A.D.A. and the Rehabilitation Act contain exemptions for people who are “not otherwise qualified” for a job or who pose “a direct threat to the health and safety of others” that can’t be eliminated by a reasonable accommodation. (This is why employers don’t have to hire blind bus drivers or mentally unstable security guards.)

The direct-threat analysis rejects the idea that employers can rely on generalizations they must assess the specific case and rely on evidence, not presuppositions. Those who worry that employers would be compelled to hire dangerous pedophiles should look to H.I.V. case law, where for years courts were highly conservative, erring on the side of finding a direct threat, even into the late 1990s, when medical authorities were in agreement that people with H.I.V. could work safely in, for example, food services.

Removing the pedophilia exclusion would not undermine criminal justice or its role in responding to child abuse. It would not make it easier, for example, for someone accused of child molestation to plead not guilty by reason of insanity.

A pedophile should be held responsible for his conduct — but not for the underlying attraction. Arguing for the rights of scorned and misunderstood groups is never popular, particularly when they are associated with real harm. But the fact that pedophilia is so despised is precisely why our responses to it, in criminal justice and mental health, have been so inconsistent and counterproductive. Acknowledging that pedophiles have a mental disorder, and removing the obstacles to their coming forward and seeking help, is not only the right thing to do, but it would also advance efforts to protect children from harm.


Here are some ideas of psychology topics you can write about:

  • The relationship between mental illness and ageing
  • An analysis regarding the possibility of applying capital punishment for sex offenders
  • Is there a link between bullied teenagers and law problems?
  • Insecurity of own sexuality is what triggers homophobes?
  • Socializing and its benefits on mental health
  • Quitting smoking through hypnosis?
  • Is morality influenced by harsh laws?
  • A link between mental health and child obesity
  • Are later mental health issues related to childhood trauma?
  • Divorce – the influence on children
  • Social Interaction explained
  • Postpartum Depression effects on mother and child – explained
  • Deviant behaviour of sex offenders could be treated through cognitive behavioural treatment?
  • Teenagers and dating abuse and violence
  • How depression affects work performance
  • Morality through generations
  • Effects of different kinds of torture
  • How undealt-with stress affects our health and well-being
  • Being attractive gets you a less-complicated life?
  • Netflix’s 13 Reasons Why – Glorifying suicide?
  • Can you build confidence by sexting?
  • Is divorce counselling helpful?
  • Senior citizens, abandonment and the link to mental illness
  • Factors that influence your motivation
  • What weakens your memory and how to stay clear of them
  • Full overview of how PTSD changes quality of life
  • Bipolar Disorder – everything you need to know
  • Mental impact of hate crimes on affected individuals
  • Mental health of homeless people
  • Why attractive people get better treatment?
  • Involvement of psychologists in the military
  • Habits – how they form and how to change them
  • Habits explained. When does a recurring action become a habit
  • Mental health effects of failed relationships
  • How is personality influenced by a birth affect?
  • Abortion – effects on the woman’s mental health
  • Miscarriage – effects on the mental health of the couple
  • Ways Used by Sports Psychology to Promote Mental Health
  • Bipolar Disorder – How it affects your health
  • Is gut microbiota linked with depression?
  • Genetics and environment and the influence on intelligence
  • How is stress affected by individual differences?
  • How mental illnesses affect our quality of life
  • Evolution of torture methods through the years
  • Narcissists – do they have an effect on our mental health?
  • Mental health improved through tolerance
  • Preterm delivery and the way it influences the mother’s health
  • How social anxiety impacts the life of the sufferer?
  • Consequences and Impact of teenage sexting on children
  • Violent music – impact on children
  • The work environment and its influence on self-esteem and motivation of workers
  • Extrovert versus Introvert behaviour
  • Does gender count in depression?
  • School uniforms – are they important?
  • Is monogamy a doable concept?
  • Are child obesity and parental negligence linked?
  • Mental health and junk food
  • Long and short-term memory
  • Mentally challenged children – a better understanding of mental development
  • How winning or losing affects our brain?
  • Social isolation and mental health
  • Influence of music on mental health
  • Social media behaviour and a negative body image
  • What not saying “NO” to your child can lead to?
  • How does peer pressure on first sexual contact impacts teen’s mental health?
  • Financial, emotional and physical abuse of elderly people
  • Postpartum depression: fact or myth?
  • Spending time alone in nature and its benefits
  • Stress and preterm delivery
  • Prevalence of depression among vitiligo diagnosed among
  • Hypnosis - Pros and Cons
  • Terrorists – mental development and psychological profile
  • Serial killers - Psychological profile
  • Introvert behaviour at adults – Consequences and reasons
  • Stress and sleep deprivation – what’s the link?
  • Can stress cause physical illness?
  • Myth of Fact – Suicidal contagion
  • Human development and growth – the three main phases
  • How phobias affect your personality
  • Office issues and how do they affect the mental state of a person
  • Gay adoption – religious and ethical concepts
  • How is the couple’s health affected by abortion?
  • How does schizophrenia changes quality of life?
  • How does social media affect human interaction?
  • Can the implication of transgender individuals in the military affect the morale of comrades
  • Teenage suicide – how to understand and control it
  • Studying schizophrenia in young women and men
  • What are the effects of solitary confinement
  • Americans and popular fast foods – understanding how it works
  • Homeless people and their problems
  • Learning about homophobes and their psychology
  • Paying for sexual favours – understanding the individuals that do that
  • Sex workers and their psychology
  • Hyperactive children and the role of environment and biology
  • Suicidal behaviours – understanding how it works
  • Motivation theories – how they work?
  • How can mental states be influenced by colours?
  • Depression – psychological reasons behind it
  • Durable marriages – how can they be obtained?
  • Is there a link between TV and obesity?
  • Hate crimes – effects on the victims and the community
  • Is personality development influenced by environment?
  • Is a child mental health influenced by having a narcissist mother?
  • Depression and obesity – is there a link?
  • Reasons why we generalize people
  • Where do phobias come from?
  • Struggling with stress
  • Reasons for the rising of divorce rate

Conclusion

Psychology research papers with process papers topics are quite often assigned to students and that leads to a lot of sleepless nights. But writing such a paper doesn’t have to be that hard. If you choose a subject you are passionate about, half of the work is done. With a thorough research you complete the other half and wiring the paper will be a piece of cake. Feel free to use the topics suggested on our website to create awesome research papers.


The difference between being imprisoned by aesthetics and benefitting from it

Your physical appearance reflects the care you have for it, as long as it comes from a desire and not an imposition. Like the vast majority of issues, there is a very fine line that separates what is pathological and what is not.

Taking care of your physical appearance as a priority in your life is completely respectable and even healthy.On the other hand, feeling depressed and anxious about not being able to fit into a model of perfection and doing everything possible to achieve it can lead to dire consequences.

You can invest large amounts of money compulsively and feel that you are never perfect enough to others. You can measure your self-worth in terms of your weight and appearance, and, that, is clearly crossing the line.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a psychological disorder where a person is unable to lead a normal life due to a real or imaginary physical defect. The person spends countless hours checking their physical appearance and may undergo endless treatments and surgeries without feeling entirely satisfied. This disorder continues to increase and is appearing more and more in younger people due to the growing influence of advertising and internet access.

The most important thing for each person to feel good in their own skin is not rely on exterior models. We must start from our own image, visualize our body without judgment and choose to know what part of our body we want to improve based on what we feel at all times.

Sometimes it is about improving what we see and other times the relationship with what we see. It is always important to remember that nothing happens in isolation and that body and mind are one. Don’t feel bad for wanting to look better in your reflection and remember that a smile is a supplement and the perfect partner to achieve it.

Body Dismorphic Disorder: Living Without Accepting Our Image

Body Dismorphic Disorder is a disorder in which an exaggerated importance is given to real or imagined defects of one’s physique. It must be detectedMore »


The most common cause of encopresis is chronic (long-term) constipation, the inability to release stools from the bowel. This may occur for several reasons, including stress, not drinking enough water (which makes the stools hard and difficult to pass), and pain caused by a sore in or near the anus.

When a child is constipated, a large mass of feces develops, which stretches the rectum. This stretching dulls the nerve endings in the rectum, and the child may not feel the need to go to the bathroom or know that waste is coming out. The mass of feces also can become impacted -- too large or too hard to pass without pain. Eventually, the muscles that keep stool in the rectum can no longer hold it back. Although the large, hard mass of feces cannot pass, loose or liquid stool may leak around the impacted mass and onto the child's clothing.

Continued

Factors that may contribute to constipation include:

  • A diet low in fiber
  • Lack of exercise
  • Fear or reluctance to use unfamiliar bathrooms, such as public restrooms
  • Not taking the time to use the bathroom
  • Changes in bathroom routines for example, scheduled bathroom breaks at school or camp

Another possible cause of encopresis is a physical problem related to the intestine's ability to move stool. The child also may develop encopresis because of fear or frustration related to toilet training. Stressful events in the child's life, such as a family illness or the arrival of a new sibling, may contribute to the disorder. In some cases, the child simply refuses to use the toilet.


Do I Have A Mental Illness? 28 Mental Disorders And Their Symptoms

Life can be scary, confusing, or upsetting when you&rsquore experiencing emotional, cognitive, and physical changes. You might even ask yourself, &ldquoDo I have a mental illness?&rdquo It&rsquos a natural question, especially since, according to NAMI statistics, 1 in 5 American adults had some type of mental disorders in 2018. Getting a diagnosis from a professional is essential but learning about mental disorders may be an excellent first step towards improving your mental health. The following list contains many of the most common mental illnesses and their symptoms.

Source: rawpixel.com


Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder

Major depressive disorder is often referred to as the common cold of psychiatric disorders. Around 6.6% of the U.S. population experiences major depressive disorder each year 16.9% will experience the disorder during their lifetime (Kessler & Wang, 2009). It is more common among women than among men, affecting approximately 20% of women and 13% of men at some point in their life (National Comorbidity Survey, 2007). The greater risk among women is not accounted for by a tendency to report symptoms or to seek help more readily, suggesting that gender differences in the rates of major depressive disorder may reflect biological and gender-related environmental experiences (Kessler, 2003).

Lifetime rates of major depressive disorder tend to be highest in North and South America, Europe, and Australia they are considerably lower in Asian countries (Hasin, Fenton, & Weissman, 2011). The rates of major depressive disorder are higher among younger age cohorts than among older cohorts, perhaps because people in younger age cohorts are more willing to admit depression (Kessler & Wang, 2009).

A number of risk factors are associated with major depressive disorder: unemployment (including homemakers) earning less than $20,000 per year living in urban areas or being separated, divorced, or widowed (Hasin et al., 2011). Comorbid disorders include anxiety disorders and substance abuse disorders (Kessler & Wang, 2009).