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Are there connections between some properties in peoples faces and their behavior?

Are there connections between some properties in peoples faces and their behavior?



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I hear a lot of people making inferences about others based on their faces, but that's common sense. Are there really properties that could be deduced from ones face?


There is some research in the realm of sex differences and hormonal effects of aggression. The hypothesis meant by that is not so much the rather obvious one that male faces reliably cue "male" behaviour; although that is an important fact. For example, if a person has a beard, they are much more likely to be sexually attracted to women than to men. However, perhaps more in response to the intent than the phrasing of the question, researchers have speculated that "sexually dimorphic facial width-to-height ratio may be an 'honest signal' of propensity for aggressive behaviour". The idea behind this is that a common component, testosterone, underlies and causes both wide, masculine faces and aggressive behaviour.

I personally am not yet convinced of the reliability of this research - for example, in the progress of this research programme, more and more mediators are discovered, which by some might be interpreted to indicate an unreliable finding. However, the basic concept seems to be what you're looking for.

More generally, for now, even the linkage between hormones or neuroanatomy on one hand, and behaviour on the other hand is rarely clear, reliable and strong. Few of the variance in behaviour can be expected to be read off of facial configurations.


Social Interaction Affects Behaviour and Health Status

Behavioural feature in relation to social interaction has performed wonders in the field of medical science. Some aspects are visible through the lenses of science but some are the trades of invisible energy. Placebo effect is among that invisible behavioural energy which has stuns the eyes of many thinkers. As per the Stimulus substitution models posit that placebo responses are due to pairings of conditional and unconditional stimuli (Montgomery et al., 1997). This Condition is either created by people or may be a natural place. The placebo effect has a very vital consequence on the synthesis of metabolites in body and in functioning of hormonal glands. Placebo effect gives rise in endorphin release (Levine et al., 1978) and drop down the symptoms of anxiety (Sternbach et al., 1968.), classical conditioning (Wickramasekera et al., 1980), and response expectancy (Kirsch, et al., 1985 Kirsch et al., 1990.).

However, Montgomery and Kirsch (1996) described data that are hard to reconcile with the hypothesis that placebo responses are mediated by such global mechanisms as anxiety reduction or the release of endogenous opioids. It has been found that it can be used as a local anaesthetic.

Genetics states that, what we express as a character, whether its behaviour or phenotype it is just a pre-programmed stimulus of genes on its switching circumstances. And the circumstances could be behavioural or environmental. The change may arise sooner or later, depends on the degree of gene regulation.

On the other hand, the arising of any action or the way someone conduct them self in response to others action is judge during psychological practice. It has been observed that the change in mood, action and development of thought triggers the secretion of different metabolite, by different gland present in different parts of brain and body. The effect of any action could be seen all over the body, such as at the time of anger the whole body share the heat arise from anger at the stage of happiness we can feel comfort and energetic and at the stage of meditation we can feel peace. These kicks off of anger can take place by others behavioural activity but its onset initiates the production of adrenaline and noradrenaline cortisol, which anger are causing hormones. Similarly, the state of happiness is the result of production of endorphins, dopamine and serotonin. Likewise, the action of meditation kicks off the production of all good hormones required by the body to be at peace.

The effect of these hormones on whole body can only be seen if these hormones are well distributed in the body cell. Whenever any hormone enters into cell it creates a signalling response which moves from cell cytoplasm to the nucleus. And nucleus is the place where the key genetic material which codes for the behaviour of cell – the structural unit of organism.


Evidence-Based Practice with Older Adults Experiencing Social Isolation and Loneliness

8.1 Introduction

We often think of aging as a time of increased loneliness and isolation. Spouses have sometimes passed away or become too frail to offer companionship, and adult children are involved in their own lives and haven’t time to be with parents. It is not uncommon in our society for older adults to have a limited role, and aging often prompts the isolation of not having family or family nearby. Illness brings with it an additional sense of isolation and aloneness, and romance and intimacy are sometimes increasingly limited. According to the literature, these conditions often lead to loneliness in older adults.

Estimates of the prevalence of loneliness range from 7% to 84% in studies where older people are asked if they feel lonely ( Wenger, 1983 Sheldon, 1984 ). Prince et al. (1997) found that available studies of adults over age 65 indicate that 5% to 15% report frequently feeling lonely and an additional 20% to 40% report occasional feelings of loneliness. However, 50% of adults aged 80 or over often feel very lonely. Because of the tendency to give positive answers when the opposite may be true, we should interpret these findings cautiously and accept that rates of loneliness may be higher than those found in surveys.

In explaining the reasons for loneliness and the large number of lonely older adults, Seligman and Csikszetmihalyi (2000) note that Americans “live surrounded by many more people than their ancestors did, yet they are intimate with fewer individuals and thus experience greater loneliness and alienation” (p. 9). Ostrov and Offer (1980) suggest that American culture emphasizes individual achievement, competitiveness, and impersonal social relations, and that loneliness may be quite pronounced in the face of such socially alienating values. Saxton (1986) argues that in contemporary American society there is a decline in the face-to-face, intimate contacts with family members, relatives, and close friends, which were much more prevalent several decades ago. Mijuskovic (1992) views American society as highly mechanized with “impersonal institutions, disintegration of the family as a result of a high divorce rate, high mobility rates with its impact on family and community ties the fast-paced living and self-centeredness of the culture interferes with people’s ability to establish and maintain fulfilling relationships” ( RokAch, 2007, p. 184 ).

Martin Seligman (2002) worries that Americans have become so caught up in a personal sense of entitlement that even helping professionals have gone along with, and in fact encouraged, “The belief that we can rely on shortcuts to happiness, joy, rapture, comfort, and ecstasy, rather than be entitled to these feelings by the exercise of personal strengths and virtues, which results in legions of people who, in the middle of great wealth, are starving spiritually” ( ABCNews.COM, 2002 , online). Seligman argues that “Positive emotion alienated from the exercise of character leads to emptiness, to inauthenticity, to depression, and, as we age, to the gnawing realization that we are fidgeting until we die” ( ABCNews.COM, 2002 , online).

Robert Putnam ( Stossel, 2000 ) believes that this focus on self is producing a country without a sense of social connectedness where, “Supper eaten with friends or family has given way to supper gobbled in solitude, with only the glow of the television screen for companionship” (p. 1). According to Putnam,

Americans today have retreated into isolation. Evidence shows that fewer and fewer contemporary Americans are unionizing, voting, rallying around shared causes, participating in religious services, inviting each other over, or doing much of anything collectively. In fact, when we do occasionally gather – for twelve-step support encounters and the like – it’s most often only as an excuse to focus on ourselves in the presence of an audience. ( Stossel, 2000, p. 1 )

Putnam believes that the lack of social involvement negatively affects school performance, health and mental health, increases crime rates, reduces tax responsibilities and charitable work, decreases productivity, and “even simple human happiness – all are demonstrably affected by how (and whether) we connect with our family and friends and neighbors and co-workers” ( Stossel, 2000, p. 1 ).

Commenting on the importance of understanding culture and the way cultures organize family life, belief systems, and closeness to others as factors in creating loneliness, RokAch (2007) writes,

Loneliness research tends to focus on individual factors, that is, either on personality factors or on lack of social contacts (Jylha and Jokela, 1990). However, loneliness could be expressive of an individual’s relationship to the community. It is conceivable, then, that the difference between cultures and the ways in which social relations are organized within them will result in cross-cultural variations in the way people experience loneliness. The difference of the social tapestry, interpersonal interactions and the support networks which are available to individuals in various cultures are bound to affect the causes of loneliness. (p. 174)

Although loneliness in older adults may have social and cultural antecedents, many lonely people report feeling lonely and rejected by others from a very early age, and even in the presence of others. Among lonely older people who have experienced loneliness from an early age, the absence of social contacts as they age creates a sense of despair that should not be confused with depression. The loneliness they experience is a feeling of separateness and not fitting in that sometimes worsens with age. This type of loneliness may have its roots in failure to bond with parents or parental rejection. A case later in the chapter describes the treatment for this type of loneliness.


Are there connections between some properties in peoples faces and their behavior? - Psychology

Movie Review

“The Blind Side” is based on the remarkable true story of Baltimore Ravens offensive left tackle Michael Oher (Quinton Aaron). Michael grew up in the inner city housing projects with his mother in Memphis, Tennessee aptly named “Hurt Village”. Michael’s story begins with him being homeless and coming from a broken home with a drug-addicted mother, and an absentee father. Because of his family circumstances, Family Services took control of his life as he was growing up. Unfortunately, he was being bounced around in and out of foster homes, and now as a teenager he has taken it upon himself that he would rather be homeless.

By a stroke of luck, and the coach’s wish for a player the size of Michael, he ends up enrolling in a private Christian school where the Tuohy kids go. Michael is a quiet person. He is shown to have a kind of childish personality, because he tries to play with kindergarten children (Rachel St. Gelais) who reject or ignore him. Michael is befriended by S.J. Tuohy (Jae Head), the youngest Tuohy whose connection to Michael starts the ball rolling.

One icy winter night, as Michael is walking down the road to the school gym, where he is sleeping, Leigh Anne Tuohy (Sandra Bullock) with her husband Sean (Tim McGraw) and children Jae and Collins (Lily Collins) pick Michael up and take him home for the night. However, he stays for the next night, which puzzles Sean, although the children accept Michael matter-of-factly. Soon, Leigh Anne offers him a room and bed. As she starts making him greater and greater favours, he comes to research through Michael’s exams, and the only positive feedback that teachers could ever say about him is that he had big protective instincts. Leigh Anne will use that to explain him how to play in the field. Up to that moment, he wasn’t able to get the hang of the game and its rules, and he wasn’t able to understand what his role in the field was.

From that moment, Michael starts to play well and be useful to his team. At the traditional Christmas card photograph of that year, Leigh Anne invites him to appear on the photo. Leigh Anne’s friends Beth (Rhoda Griffs), Elaine (Eaddy Mays) and Sherry (Ashley LeConte Campbell) meet regularly at a local expensive restaurant. The friends laugh about Leigh Anne’s “project in the projects”, but she cuts it off, saying that if they don’t respect what she does, she will stop seeing them.

An opportunity arises for Michael to play at university level. However, he needs his grades to improve, so the Tuohys hire a private tuition teacher, outspoken and kind Miss Sue (Kathy Bates), who will immediately succeed. During their Geography lesson, she makes a stupid remark about some univerity burying the bodies of dead people in their game field, which Michael seems to believe blindly.

There comes a momen when Leigh Anne wants to have a face-to-face conversation with Michael’s mother(Adriane Lenox). Although she seems unresponsive in the beginning, the mother finally wishes Michael the best. She says that social services had branded Michael “a runner”, and she forecasts that Leigh Anne will find one day that he has run away for good without giving any previous notice. Leigh Anne also faces some guys from the projects which had threatened Michael. They are left speechles when she threatens them and is not afraid of them at all.

Three universities want Michael. S. J. talks to the coaches, and leads the negotiations on Michael’s behalf. When Michael gets his grades high enough, he must make a decision, and he does. He chooses the university where Sean had played for, and where Leigh Anne was a cheerleader. That causes Investigator Granger (Sharon Morris) to move onto the matter before Michael arrives there. She questions him as though they were holding interrogatory preceding at a police station. She thinks that the Tuohys and Miss Sue are using Michael to benefit that particular university.

After thinking and questioning Leigh Ann on the matter, Michael realises that the Tuohys are now his family, and tells Granger that that’s the reason for him to choose that university.

The film ends saying that he’ll succeed and become a professional player later on. S. J went out to the gamefield with Michael before all local games.

Discussions

In discussions on matters which are important components in the film “based on a true story” we discuss this in the form of topics for easy understanding.

Discrimination

(Discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely on their membership in a certain group or category. Discrimination is the actual behavior towards members of another group. It involves excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to other groups. The United Nations explains: “Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection.” Discriminatory laws such as redlining have existed in many countries. In some countries, controversial attempts such as racial quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discrimination.)

In this movie very clear picture of the social discrimination experienced by Michael in his social life. Discrimination is not the backdrop of the race just like in America in the Middle Ages, but this is discrimination against the background of a lack of ability of the brain’s performance in capturing Michael’s understanding of something material. So, he experienced physical isolation. In addition, Michael was born of a broken family that does not help in the development of intelligence level. But psychologically, this discrimination has no significant influence on the development of Michael’s soul. With all the pressure they experience, the nature of humility, and high ability to reduce anger (patience) is a dominant trait him.

Rugby/American Football

Rugby football is a style of football that originated from Rugby School in the United Kingdom. It is seen most prominently in two current sports, rugby league and rugby union, and has influenced the development of others such as American football and Canadian football.

Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and the ban on passing the ball forward, so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its union counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced, more try-orientated game.

The main differences between the two games, besides league having teams of 13 players and union of 15, involve the tackle and its aftermath:

  • Union players contest possession following the tackle: depending on the situation, either a ruck or a maul can occur. League players may not contest possession after making a tackle: play is continued with a play-the-ball.
  • In league, if the team in possession fails to score before a set of six tackles, it surrenders possession. Union has no six-tackle rule a team can keep the ball for an unlimited number of tackles before scoring as long as it maintains possession and does not commit an offence.

Set pieces of the union code include the scrum, where packs of opposing players push against each other for possession, and the line-out, where parallel lines of players from each team, arranged perpendicular to the touch-line attempt to catch the ball thrown from touch.

In the league code, the scrum still exists, but with greatly reduced importance as it involves fewer players and is rarely contested. Set pieces are generally started from the play-the-ball situation. Many of the rugby league positions have similar names and requirements to rugby union positions, but there are no flankers in rugby league.

In the United Kingdom, rugby union fans sometimes use the term “rugger” as an alternative name for the sport, (see Oxford ‘-er’). New Zealanders refer to rugby in general as “footy” or “football”, rugby union simply as either “rugby” or “union” and to rugby league as “rugby league” or “league”.In the U.S., people who play rugby are sometimes called “ruggers”, a term little used elsewhere except facetiously.

Those considered being heavily involved with the rugby union lifestyle — including heavy drinking and striped jumpers — sometimes identifying as “rugger buggers”. In the UK and Ireland, an old saying goes “Rugby is a game for barbarians played by gentlemen. Football is a game for gentlemen played by barbarians.”

In this film clearly depicts the life of Michael drastic changes occur in American football when his talent started to appear and his name became a legend in football history. Michael, who originally lived “in exile” by the people around him, his friends, because of deficiencies in understanding the academic material or approximately called stupid. Michael’s life changes brought a psychological impact on the community and inspiration to people like Michael’s fate at the earliest.

Michael experienced success in the world of American football is not the instant action, on awalnyapun lot of pressure experienced by Michael at the beginning of a waterfall in the world of American football. football practice he started at 0 and with enthusiasm, high ambition he was able through the pressure delivered by the association and the community he proved intelegansinya luas.disinilah (human intelligence) to the world of people who are considered “no” to “human inspiration” .

Conformity is the process by which an individual’s attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors are influenced by what is conceived to be what other people might perceive. This influence occurs in both small groups and society as a whole, and it may be the result of subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure Conformity also occurs by the “implied presence” of others, or when other people are not actually present. For example, people tend to follow the norms of society when eating or watching television, even when they are at home by themselves.

People often conform from a desire to achieve a sense of security within a group—typically a group that is of a similar age, culture, religion, or educational status. Any unwillingness to conform carries with it the very real risk of social rejection . In this respect, conformity can be seen as a safe means of avoiding bullying or deflecting criticism from peers. Conformity is often associated with adolescence and youth culture , but it affects humans of all ages.

Although peer pressure may be viewed as a negative trait, conformity can have either good or bad effects depending on the situation. Driving safely on the correct side of the road is a beneficial example of conformity. Conformity influences the formation and maintenance of social norms and allows society to function smoothly and predictably. Because conformity is a group phenomenon, such factors as group size, unanimity, cohesion, status , prior commitment, and public opinion all help to determine the level of conformity an individual will display.

Based on the suitability of this theory, the film “The Blind Side” describes how Michael’s efforts to adjust to the environment around and out of “exile”. as depicted in the scene when Michael was expelled by the family of a mechanic who has been a family who care for him, Michael, who did not have a place to stay to try to adapt to life in school with allowances and take clean up the garbage, not only up there, Michael is from the beginning interested with rugby (American football) is often its ability to train so that he ogled by Bert (gym teacher) untu trained and used as a football athlete, from the initial milestone sisnilah Michael perform in accordance with the world around and out of exile shop ‘. “He’s doing this just because he tried to avoid bullying, rejection pressures, social and criticism from the surrounding neighborhood when he experienced during ini.berdasarkan theory correspondence, the movie”

Theory that support this explanation is Normative social influence

Normative social influence occurs when one conforms to be liked or accepted by the members of the group. It usually results in public compliance , doing or saying something without believing in it. Normative influence is a function of social impact theory which has three components. The number of people in the group has a surprising effect. As the number increases, each person has less of an impact. A group’s strength is how important the group is to a person.. Groups we value generally have more social influence. Immediacy is how close the group is in time and space when the influence is taking place. Psychologists have constructed a mathematical model using these three factors and are able to predict the amount of conformity that occurs with some degree of accuracy.

In this film, this theory applies when the local community to accept Michael’s because on the basis of “kesukaaannya and ability” in terms of American football. simplenya or she is accepted by the community after many or most people can accept the presence of his achievement. but when reviewing his past behind a story where people mengucilkannya because of the assumption that he is a stupid child who should be shunned. so that in fact this theory explains the nature of the flexible “to follow the opinion of those many” although not necessarily assuming it’s true.

Although conformity generally leads individuals to think and act more like groups, individuals are occasionally able to reverse this tendency and change the people around them .This is known as minority influence , a special case of informational influence Minority influence is most likely when people are able to make a clear and consistent case for their point of view. If the minority fluctuates and shows uncertainty, the chance of influence is small. However, if the minority makes a strong, convincing case, it will increase the probability of changing the beliefs and behavior of the majority. Minority members who are perceived as experts, are high in status, or have benefited the group in the past are also more likely to succeed.

On “The Blind Side” Michael’s success is because he is a minority (talented in sports American football) than the average person. So that there is recognition of talent and caused him to be accepted by society at large, even a source of inspiration for the community. in this case we call it a “positive minority that bring success.”

Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. Sensation usually refers to the immediate, relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin. Perception , on the other hand, better describes one’s ultimate experience of the world and typically involves further processing of sensory input In practice, sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate, because they are part of one continuous process.

Thus, “perception in humans describes the process whereby sensory stimulation is translated into organized experience” that experience, or percept, is the joint product of the stimulation and of the process itself. Relations found between various types of stimulation (eg, light waves and sound waves) and their associated percepts suggest inferences that can be made about the properties of the perceptual process theories of perceiving then can be developed on the basis of these inferences. Because the perceptual process is not itself public or directly observable (except to the perceiver himself, whose percepts are given directly in experience), the validity of perceptual theories can be checked only indirectly.

On “The Blind Side” Michael’s success is because he is a minority (talented in sports American football) than the average person. so that there is recognition of talent and caused him to be accepted by society at large, even a source of inspiration for the community. in this case we call it a “positive minority that bring success.”

Stereotypes are characteristics ascribed to groups of people involving gender, race, national origin and other factors. These characteristics tend to be oversimplifications of the groups involved, however. For example, someone who meets a few individuals from a particular country and finds them to be quiet and reserved may spread the word that all citizens from the country in question are quiet and reserved. A generalization such as this doesn’t allow for diversity within groups and may result in stigmatization and discrimination of groups if the stereotypes linked to them are largely negative. That said, even so-called positive stereotypes can be harmful due to their limiting nature.

In this film we can conclude that Big Mike or Michael other get a stereotype from the society where he lives. In the beginning people thoughts if big Mike (as black man) is unattractive and has a bad attitude, uncompetent for white people. But actually that’s wrong because people just see in category which they think it’s a correct, rather than according to the characteristic individual. Big mike Prove whether “black man could be success like white people.


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Keywords : dog–human relationship, dog attachment, caregiving, emotional bonding, dog welfare

Citation: Rehn T, Beetz A and Keeling LJ (2017) Links between an Owner’s Adult Attachment Style and the Support-Seeking Behavior of Their Dog. Front. Psychol. 8:2059. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02059

Received: 17 July 2017 Accepted: 13 November 2017
Published: 30 November 2017.

Gilad Hirschberger, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Israel

Sigal Zilcha-Mano, University of Haifa, Israel
William J. Chopik, Michigan State University, United States

Copyright © 2017 Rehn, Beetz and Keeling. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


Fake Watchful Eyes Discourage Naughty Behavior

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By Mark Brown, Wired U.K.

Being watched by a photograph of staring eyes can be enough encouragement to behave, follow orders or do the right thing, a study has found.

Psychology researchers at Newcastle University hung two different posters at a restaurant, to see how customers would react. They both featured text asking patrons to bin their rubbish, but one had a picture of flowers on it and the other had a pair of staring eyes.

The number of people who paid attention to the sign, and cleaned up after their meal, doubled when confronted with a pair of gazing peepers. The research team, lead by Dr. Melissa Bateson and Dr. Daniel Nettle of the Centre for Behaviour and Evolution found that twice as many customers followed the orders when met with eyes, compared to figures for the flower poster from the day before.

The study is based on the theory of "nudge psychology," which suggests people behave better if the best option is highlighted, but not forced upon them. Linking that with the eyes grabs peoples' attention, and makes that nudge even more effective.

It's a followup to a 2006 study where similar posters were hung up in a communal tea room, by the honesty box. Subjects were found to pay up nearly three times as much cash when stared at by eyes, rather than flowers. Luckily, we're far too honest to need one of these posters in the Wired offices.

But researchers wanted to know whether the same tactic would work outside the workplace, and would extend to other forms of cooperation. The successful cafe experiment is the first step, but the researchers have even more ambitious plans.

"Painting a pair of eyes on a wall may be useful for preventing antisocial behavior in quiet locations," says Dr. Bateson. And, "if signs for CCTV cameras used pictures of eyes instead of cameras they could be more effective."


Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health


Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health (3) To identify predictor variables of happiness and (4) To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14� years old). The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession𠄼ompulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…), fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic), high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal). Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self-esteem, cooperation…).


When a Behavior Becomes a Disorder

Typically, an impulsive action results from the tension that has built to the point where the person can no longer resist it. The immediate sense of relief from acting on impulsive behavior is short-lived, however.

Feelings such as guilt or shame may follow, and repeated impulsive acts may lead to a number of negative consequences, such as greater emotional distress or regret, in the long term.

When the emotional toll or impulsive behavior becomes unmanageable or seriously disrupts everyday life, an impulse control disorder is a likely cause.


The behavior of groups is one of the largest research areas in social psychology. Most people realize that groups tend to behave differently than individuals. These group behaviors are sometimes beneficial and positive, but can also be detrimental and negative. Social psychologists often look at topics such as group dynamics, leadership, group decision making, conflicts, cooperation, and group influence.  

Social psychologists are also interested in the role that social influence has on behavior and decision making. Topics such as the psychology of persuasion, peer pressure, conformity, and obedience are only a few of those studied in this area of social psychology.  

Research has helped reveal the power of social influence and has uncovered ways to help people resist influence.


Dramaturgical Analysis: Sociological

4 Methodological Issues

Brissett and Edgley ( 1990 ) provide a list of some of the critiques that have been made of dramaturgy. For some critics, dramaturgy is a pedestrian, nonsystematic form of inquiry that does not possess the properties of formal theory. Brissett and Edgley agree, but indicate that is it linked propositionally to other forms of social thought, such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, existential sociology, interpersonal psychology, and other humanistic models in the social sciences.

A second criticism is that dramaturgy does not produce universal statements about human behavior. It is said to be an artifact of studying the situational behavior in Western culture. In response, Brissett and Edgley first note that understanding how people interact in Western society is no small achievement, but go on to point to the fact that the expressive behavior of individuals is well-documented in the anthropological literature.

Dramaturgy, or at least Goffman's version of it, has also been criticized for its methodology. It is said to have no specific, systematic method of testing propositions about the world. Brissett and Edgley claim that there is nothing special about doing dramaturgy. Being sensitive to the expressive dimension of behavior demands no special methodology or observational skills. However, there should be an unnerving and single-minded commitment to the observation of people's doings.

Another criticism is that dramaturgy slights the impact of larger social units, such as institutions, on human behavior. In response, Brissett and Edgley assert that there can be no doubt that people's interaction contexts are circumscribed by structural arrangements. However, rather than dwelling on the limitations, dramaturgy focuses on what people do within the contexts that are available to them. The concept of role is used as a way of accounting for people's connections to one another as well as to the structures and organizations with which they are identified.

Finally, the most prevalent critique has to do with the theatrical metaphor. Critics say that the theater is make-believe and everyday life is real. Brissett and Edgely respond that life is neither theater nor is it different from theater. It is theater like.


When a Behavior Becomes a Disorder

Typically, an impulsive action results from the tension that has built to the point where the person can no longer resist it. The immediate sense of relief from acting on impulsive behavior is short-lived, however.

Feelings such as guilt or shame may follow, and repeated impulsive acts may lead to a number of negative consequences, such as greater emotional distress or regret, in the long term.

When the emotional toll or impulsive behavior becomes unmanageable or seriously disrupts everyday life, an impulse control disorder is a likely cause.


Fake Watchful Eyes Discourage Naughty Behavior

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

By Mark Brown, Wired U.K.

Being watched by a photograph of staring eyes can be enough encouragement to behave, follow orders or do the right thing, a study has found.

Psychology researchers at Newcastle University hung two different posters at a restaurant, to see how customers would react. They both featured text asking patrons to bin their rubbish, but one had a picture of flowers on it and the other had a pair of staring eyes.

The number of people who paid attention to the sign, and cleaned up after their meal, doubled when confronted with a pair of gazing peepers. The research team, lead by Dr. Melissa Bateson and Dr. Daniel Nettle of the Centre for Behaviour and Evolution found that twice as many customers followed the orders when met with eyes, compared to figures for the flower poster from the day before.

The study is based on the theory of "nudge psychology," which suggests people behave better if the best option is highlighted, but not forced upon them. Linking that with the eyes grabs peoples' attention, and makes that nudge even more effective.

It's a followup to a 2006 study where similar posters were hung up in a communal tea room, by the honesty box. Subjects were found to pay up nearly three times as much cash when stared at by eyes, rather than flowers. Luckily, we're far too honest to need one of these posters in the Wired offices.

But researchers wanted to know whether the same tactic would work outside the workplace, and would extend to other forms of cooperation. The successful cafe experiment is the first step, but the researchers have even more ambitious plans.

"Painting a pair of eyes on a wall may be useful for preventing antisocial behavior in quiet locations," says Dr. Bateson. And, "if signs for CCTV cameras used pictures of eyes instead of cameras they could be more effective."


Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health


Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health (3) To identify predictor variables of happiness and (4) To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14� years old). The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession𠄼ompulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…), fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic), high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal). Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self-esteem, cooperation…).


Social Interaction Affects Behaviour and Health Status

Behavioural feature in relation to social interaction has performed wonders in the field of medical science. Some aspects are visible through the lenses of science but some are the trades of invisible energy. Placebo effect is among that invisible behavioural energy which has stuns the eyes of many thinkers. As per the Stimulus substitution models posit that placebo responses are due to pairings of conditional and unconditional stimuli (Montgomery et al., 1997). This Condition is either created by people or may be a natural place. The placebo effect has a very vital consequence on the synthesis of metabolites in body and in functioning of hormonal glands. Placebo effect gives rise in endorphin release (Levine et al., 1978) and drop down the symptoms of anxiety (Sternbach et al., 1968.), classical conditioning (Wickramasekera et al., 1980), and response expectancy (Kirsch, et al., 1985 Kirsch et al., 1990.).

However, Montgomery and Kirsch (1996) described data that are hard to reconcile with the hypothesis that placebo responses are mediated by such global mechanisms as anxiety reduction or the release of endogenous opioids. It has been found that it can be used as a local anaesthetic.

Genetics states that, what we express as a character, whether its behaviour or phenotype it is just a pre-programmed stimulus of genes on its switching circumstances. And the circumstances could be behavioural or environmental. The change may arise sooner or later, depends on the degree of gene regulation.

On the other hand, the arising of any action or the way someone conduct them self in response to others action is judge during psychological practice. It has been observed that the change in mood, action and development of thought triggers the secretion of different metabolite, by different gland present in different parts of brain and body. The effect of any action could be seen all over the body, such as at the time of anger the whole body share the heat arise from anger at the stage of happiness we can feel comfort and energetic and at the stage of meditation we can feel peace. These kicks off of anger can take place by others behavioural activity but its onset initiates the production of adrenaline and noradrenaline cortisol, which anger are causing hormones. Similarly, the state of happiness is the result of production of endorphins, dopamine and serotonin. Likewise, the action of meditation kicks off the production of all good hormones required by the body to be at peace.

The effect of these hormones on whole body can only be seen if these hormones are well distributed in the body cell. Whenever any hormone enters into cell it creates a signalling response which moves from cell cytoplasm to the nucleus. And nucleus is the place where the key genetic material which codes for the behaviour of cell – the structural unit of organism.


Are there connections between some properties in peoples faces and their behavior? - Psychology

Movie Review

“The Blind Side” is based on the remarkable true story of Baltimore Ravens offensive left tackle Michael Oher (Quinton Aaron). Michael grew up in the inner city housing projects with his mother in Memphis, Tennessee aptly named “Hurt Village”. Michael’s story begins with him being homeless and coming from a broken home with a drug-addicted mother, and an absentee father. Because of his family circumstances, Family Services took control of his life as he was growing up. Unfortunately, he was being bounced around in and out of foster homes, and now as a teenager he has taken it upon himself that he would rather be homeless.

By a stroke of luck, and the coach’s wish for a player the size of Michael, he ends up enrolling in a private Christian school where the Tuohy kids go. Michael is a quiet person. He is shown to have a kind of childish personality, because he tries to play with kindergarten children (Rachel St. Gelais) who reject or ignore him. Michael is befriended by S.J. Tuohy (Jae Head), the youngest Tuohy whose connection to Michael starts the ball rolling.

One icy winter night, as Michael is walking down the road to the school gym, where he is sleeping, Leigh Anne Tuohy (Sandra Bullock) with her husband Sean (Tim McGraw) and children Jae and Collins (Lily Collins) pick Michael up and take him home for the night. However, he stays for the next night, which puzzles Sean, although the children accept Michael matter-of-factly. Soon, Leigh Anne offers him a room and bed. As she starts making him greater and greater favours, he comes to research through Michael’s exams, and the only positive feedback that teachers could ever say about him is that he had big protective instincts. Leigh Anne will use that to explain him how to play in the field. Up to that moment, he wasn’t able to get the hang of the game and its rules, and he wasn’t able to understand what his role in the field was.

From that moment, Michael starts to play well and be useful to his team. At the traditional Christmas card photograph of that year, Leigh Anne invites him to appear on the photo. Leigh Anne’s friends Beth (Rhoda Griffs), Elaine (Eaddy Mays) and Sherry (Ashley LeConte Campbell) meet regularly at a local expensive restaurant. The friends laugh about Leigh Anne’s “project in the projects”, but she cuts it off, saying that if they don’t respect what she does, she will stop seeing them.

An opportunity arises for Michael to play at university level. However, he needs his grades to improve, so the Tuohys hire a private tuition teacher, outspoken and kind Miss Sue (Kathy Bates), who will immediately succeed. During their Geography lesson, she makes a stupid remark about some univerity burying the bodies of dead people in their game field, which Michael seems to believe blindly.

There comes a momen when Leigh Anne wants to have a face-to-face conversation with Michael’s mother(Adriane Lenox). Although she seems unresponsive in the beginning, the mother finally wishes Michael the best. She says that social services had branded Michael “a runner”, and she forecasts that Leigh Anne will find one day that he has run away for good without giving any previous notice. Leigh Anne also faces some guys from the projects which had threatened Michael. They are left speechles when she threatens them and is not afraid of them at all.

Three universities want Michael. S. J. talks to the coaches, and leads the negotiations on Michael’s behalf. When Michael gets his grades high enough, he must make a decision, and he does. He chooses the university where Sean had played for, and where Leigh Anne was a cheerleader. That causes Investigator Granger (Sharon Morris) to move onto the matter before Michael arrives there. She questions him as though they were holding interrogatory preceding at a police station. She thinks that the Tuohys and Miss Sue are using Michael to benefit that particular university.

After thinking and questioning Leigh Ann on the matter, Michael realises that the Tuohys are now his family, and tells Granger that that’s the reason for him to choose that university.

The film ends saying that he’ll succeed and become a professional player later on. S. J went out to the gamefield with Michael before all local games.

Discussions

In discussions on matters which are important components in the film “based on a true story” we discuss this in the form of topics for easy understanding.

Discrimination

(Discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely on their membership in a certain group or category. Discrimination is the actual behavior towards members of another group. It involves excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to other groups. The United Nations explains: “Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection.” Discriminatory laws such as redlining have existed in many countries. In some countries, controversial attempts such as racial quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discrimination.)

In this movie very clear picture of the social discrimination experienced by Michael in his social life. Discrimination is not the backdrop of the race just like in America in the Middle Ages, but this is discrimination against the background of a lack of ability of the brain’s performance in capturing Michael’s understanding of something material. So, he experienced physical isolation. In addition, Michael was born of a broken family that does not help in the development of intelligence level. But psychologically, this discrimination has no significant influence on the development of Michael’s soul. With all the pressure they experience, the nature of humility, and high ability to reduce anger (patience) is a dominant trait him.

Rugby/American Football

Rugby football is a style of football that originated from Rugby School in the United Kingdom. It is seen most prominently in two current sports, rugby league and rugby union, and has influenced the development of others such as American football and Canadian football.

Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and the ban on passing the ball forward, so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its union counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced, more try-orientated game.

The main differences between the two games, besides league having teams of 13 players and union of 15, involve the tackle and its aftermath:

  • Union players contest possession following the tackle: depending on the situation, either a ruck or a maul can occur. League players may not contest possession after making a tackle: play is continued with a play-the-ball.
  • In league, if the team in possession fails to score before a set of six tackles, it surrenders possession. Union has no six-tackle rule a team can keep the ball for an unlimited number of tackles before scoring as long as it maintains possession and does not commit an offence.

Set pieces of the union code include the scrum, where packs of opposing players push against each other for possession, and the line-out, where parallel lines of players from each team, arranged perpendicular to the touch-line attempt to catch the ball thrown from touch.

In the league code, the scrum still exists, but with greatly reduced importance as it involves fewer players and is rarely contested. Set pieces are generally started from the play-the-ball situation. Many of the rugby league positions have similar names and requirements to rugby union positions, but there are no flankers in rugby league.

In the United Kingdom, rugby union fans sometimes use the term “rugger” as an alternative name for the sport, (see Oxford ‘-er’). New Zealanders refer to rugby in general as “footy” or “football”, rugby union simply as either “rugby” or “union” and to rugby league as “rugby league” or “league”.In the U.S., people who play rugby are sometimes called “ruggers”, a term little used elsewhere except facetiously.

Those considered being heavily involved with the rugby union lifestyle — including heavy drinking and striped jumpers — sometimes identifying as “rugger buggers”. In the UK and Ireland, an old saying goes “Rugby is a game for barbarians played by gentlemen. Football is a game for gentlemen played by barbarians.”

In this film clearly depicts the life of Michael drastic changes occur in American football when his talent started to appear and his name became a legend in football history. Michael, who originally lived “in exile” by the people around him, his friends, because of deficiencies in understanding the academic material or approximately called stupid. Michael’s life changes brought a psychological impact on the community and inspiration to people like Michael’s fate at the earliest.

Michael experienced success in the world of American football is not the instant action, on awalnyapun lot of pressure experienced by Michael at the beginning of a waterfall in the world of American football. football practice he started at 0 and with enthusiasm, high ambition he was able through the pressure delivered by the association and the community he proved intelegansinya luas.disinilah (human intelligence) to the world of people who are considered “no” to “human inspiration” .

Conformity is the process by which an individual’s attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors are influenced by what is conceived to be what other people might perceive. This influence occurs in both small groups and society as a whole, and it may be the result of subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure Conformity also occurs by the “implied presence” of others, or when other people are not actually present. For example, people tend to follow the norms of society when eating or watching television, even when they are at home by themselves.

People often conform from a desire to achieve a sense of security within a group—typically a group that is of a similar age, culture, religion, or educational status. Any unwillingness to conform carries with it the very real risk of social rejection . In this respect, conformity can be seen as a safe means of avoiding bullying or deflecting criticism from peers. Conformity is often associated with adolescence and youth culture , but it affects humans of all ages.

Although peer pressure may be viewed as a negative trait, conformity can have either good or bad effects depending on the situation. Driving safely on the correct side of the road is a beneficial example of conformity. Conformity influences the formation and maintenance of social norms and allows society to function smoothly and predictably. Because conformity is a group phenomenon, such factors as group size, unanimity, cohesion, status , prior commitment, and public opinion all help to determine the level of conformity an individual will display.

Based on the suitability of this theory, the film “The Blind Side” describes how Michael’s efforts to adjust to the environment around and out of “exile”. as depicted in the scene when Michael was expelled by the family of a mechanic who has been a family who care for him, Michael, who did not have a place to stay to try to adapt to life in school with allowances and take clean up the garbage, not only up there, Michael is from the beginning interested with rugby (American football) is often its ability to train so that he ogled by Bert (gym teacher) untu trained and used as a football athlete, from the initial milestone sisnilah Michael perform in accordance with the world around and out of exile shop ‘. “He’s doing this just because he tried to avoid bullying, rejection pressures, social and criticism from the surrounding neighborhood when he experienced during ini.berdasarkan theory correspondence, the movie”

Theory that support this explanation is Normative social influence

Normative social influence occurs when one conforms to be liked or accepted by the members of the group. It usually results in public compliance , doing or saying something without believing in it. Normative influence is a function of social impact theory which has three components. The number of people in the group has a surprising effect. As the number increases, each person has less of an impact. A group’s strength is how important the group is to a person.. Groups we value generally have more social influence. Immediacy is how close the group is in time and space when the influence is taking place. Psychologists have constructed a mathematical model using these three factors and are able to predict the amount of conformity that occurs with some degree of accuracy.

In this film, this theory applies when the local community to accept Michael’s because on the basis of “kesukaaannya and ability” in terms of American football. simplenya or she is accepted by the community after many or most people can accept the presence of his achievement. but when reviewing his past behind a story where people mengucilkannya because of the assumption that he is a stupid child who should be shunned. so that in fact this theory explains the nature of the flexible “to follow the opinion of those many” although not necessarily assuming it’s true.

Although conformity generally leads individuals to think and act more like groups, individuals are occasionally able to reverse this tendency and change the people around them .This is known as minority influence , a special case of informational influence Minority influence is most likely when people are able to make a clear and consistent case for their point of view. If the minority fluctuates and shows uncertainty, the chance of influence is small. However, if the minority makes a strong, convincing case, it will increase the probability of changing the beliefs and behavior of the majority. Minority members who are perceived as experts, are high in status, or have benefited the group in the past are also more likely to succeed.

On “The Blind Side” Michael’s success is because he is a minority (talented in sports American football) than the average person. So that there is recognition of talent and caused him to be accepted by society at large, even a source of inspiration for the community. in this case we call it a “positive minority that bring success.”

Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. Sensation usually refers to the immediate, relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin. Perception , on the other hand, better describes one’s ultimate experience of the world and typically involves further processing of sensory input In practice, sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate, because they are part of one continuous process.

Thus, “perception in humans describes the process whereby sensory stimulation is translated into organized experience” that experience, or percept, is the joint product of the stimulation and of the process itself. Relations found between various types of stimulation (eg, light waves and sound waves) and their associated percepts suggest inferences that can be made about the properties of the perceptual process theories of perceiving then can be developed on the basis of these inferences. Because the perceptual process is not itself public or directly observable (except to the perceiver himself, whose percepts are given directly in experience), the validity of perceptual theories can be checked only indirectly.

On “The Blind Side” Michael’s success is because he is a minority (talented in sports American football) than the average person. so that there is recognition of talent and caused him to be accepted by society at large, even a source of inspiration for the community. in this case we call it a “positive minority that bring success.”

Stereotypes are characteristics ascribed to groups of people involving gender, race, national origin and other factors. These characteristics tend to be oversimplifications of the groups involved, however. For example, someone who meets a few individuals from a particular country and finds them to be quiet and reserved may spread the word that all citizens from the country in question are quiet and reserved. A generalization such as this doesn’t allow for diversity within groups and may result in stigmatization and discrimination of groups if the stereotypes linked to them are largely negative. That said, even so-called positive stereotypes can be harmful due to their limiting nature.

In this film we can conclude that Big Mike or Michael other get a stereotype from the society where he lives. In the beginning people thoughts if big Mike (as black man) is unattractive and has a bad attitude, uncompetent for white people. But actually that’s wrong because people just see in category which they think it’s a correct, rather than according to the characteristic individual. Big mike Prove whether “black man could be success like white people.


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Keywords : dog–human relationship, dog attachment, caregiving, emotional bonding, dog welfare

Citation: Rehn T, Beetz A and Keeling LJ (2017) Links between an Owner’s Adult Attachment Style and the Support-Seeking Behavior of Their Dog. Front. Psychol. 8:2059. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02059

Received: 17 July 2017 Accepted: 13 November 2017
Published: 30 November 2017.

Gilad Hirschberger, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Israel

Sigal Zilcha-Mano, University of Haifa, Israel
William J. Chopik, Michigan State University, United States

Copyright © 2017 Rehn, Beetz and Keeling. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


Evidence-Based Practice with Older Adults Experiencing Social Isolation and Loneliness

8.1 Introduction

We often think of aging as a time of increased loneliness and isolation. Spouses have sometimes passed away or become too frail to offer companionship, and adult children are involved in their own lives and haven’t time to be with parents. It is not uncommon in our society for older adults to have a limited role, and aging often prompts the isolation of not having family or family nearby. Illness brings with it an additional sense of isolation and aloneness, and romance and intimacy are sometimes increasingly limited. According to the literature, these conditions often lead to loneliness in older adults.

Estimates of the prevalence of loneliness range from 7% to 84% in studies where older people are asked if they feel lonely ( Wenger, 1983 Sheldon, 1984 ). Prince et al. (1997) found that available studies of adults over age 65 indicate that 5% to 15% report frequently feeling lonely and an additional 20% to 40% report occasional feelings of loneliness. However, 50% of adults aged 80 or over often feel very lonely. Because of the tendency to give positive answers when the opposite may be true, we should interpret these findings cautiously and accept that rates of loneliness may be higher than those found in surveys.

In explaining the reasons for loneliness and the large number of lonely older adults, Seligman and Csikszetmihalyi (2000) note that Americans “live surrounded by many more people than their ancestors did, yet they are intimate with fewer individuals and thus experience greater loneliness and alienation” (p. 9). Ostrov and Offer (1980) suggest that American culture emphasizes individual achievement, competitiveness, and impersonal social relations, and that loneliness may be quite pronounced in the face of such socially alienating values. Saxton (1986) argues that in contemporary American society there is a decline in the face-to-face, intimate contacts with family members, relatives, and close friends, which were much more prevalent several decades ago. Mijuskovic (1992) views American society as highly mechanized with “impersonal institutions, disintegration of the family as a result of a high divorce rate, high mobility rates with its impact on family and community ties the fast-paced living and self-centeredness of the culture interferes with people’s ability to establish and maintain fulfilling relationships” ( RokAch, 2007, p. 184 ).

Martin Seligman (2002) worries that Americans have become so caught up in a personal sense of entitlement that even helping professionals have gone along with, and in fact encouraged, “The belief that we can rely on shortcuts to happiness, joy, rapture, comfort, and ecstasy, rather than be entitled to these feelings by the exercise of personal strengths and virtues, which results in legions of people who, in the middle of great wealth, are starving spiritually” ( ABCNews.COM, 2002 , online). Seligman argues that “Positive emotion alienated from the exercise of character leads to emptiness, to inauthenticity, to depression, and, as we age, to the gnawing realization that we are fidgeting until we die” ( ABCNews.COM, 2002 , online).

Robert Putnam ( Stossel, 2000 ) believes that this focus on self is producing a country without a sense of social connectedness where, “Supper eaten with friends or family has given way to supper gobbled in solitude, with only the glow of the television screen for companionship” (p. 1). According to Putnam,

Americans today have retreated into isolation. Evidence shows that fewer and fewer contemporary Americans are unionizing, voting, rallying around shared causes, participating in religious services, inviting each other over, or doing much of anything collectively. In fact, when we do occasionally gather – for twelve-step support encounters and the like – it’s most often only as an excuse to focus on ourselves in the presence of an audience. ( Stossel, 2000, p. 1 )

Putnam believes that the lack of social involvement negatively affects school performance, health and mental health, increases crime rates, reduces tax responsibilities and charitable work, decreases productivity, and “even simple human happiness – all are demonstrably affected by how (and whether) we connect with our family and friends and neighbors and co-workers” ( Stossel, 2000, p. 1 ).

Commenting on the importance of understanding culture and the way cultures organize family life, belief systems, and closeness to others as factors in creating loneliness, RokAch (2007) writes,

Loneliness research tends to focus on individual factors, that is, either on personality factors or on lack of social contacts (Jylha and Jokela, 1990). However, loneliness could be expressive of an individual’s relationship to the community. It is conceivable, then, that the difference between cultures and the ways in which social relations are organized within them will result in cross-cultural variations in the way people experience loneliness. The difference of the social tapestry, interpersonal interactions and the support networks which are available to individuals in various cultures are bound to affect the causes of loneliness. (p. 174)

Although loneliness in older adults may have social and cultural antecedents, many lonely people report feeling lonely and rejected by others from a very early age, and even in the presence of others. Among lonely older people who have experienced loneliness from an early age, the absence of social contacts as they age creates a sense of despair that should not be confused with depression. The loneliness they experience is a feeling of separateness and not fitting in that sometimes worsens with age. This type of loneliness may have its roots in failure to bond with parents or parental rejection. A case later in the chapter describes the treatment for this type of loneliness.


Dramaturgical Analysis: Sociological

4 Methodological Issues

Brissett and Edgley ( 1990 ) provide a list of some of the critiques that have been made of dramaturgy. For some critics, dramaturgy is a pedestrian, nonsystematic form of inquiry that does not possess the properties of formal theory. Brissett and Edgley agree, but indicate that is it linked propositionally to other forms of social thought, such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, existential sociology, interpersonal psychology, and other humanistic models in the social sciences.

A second criticism is that dramaturgy does not produce universal statements about human behavior. It is said to be an artifact of studying the situational behavior in Western culture. In response, Brissett and Edgley first note that understanding how people interact in Western society is no small achievement, but go on to point to the fact that the expressive behavior of individuals is well-documented in the anthropological literature.

Dramaturgy, or at least Goffman's version of it, has also been criticized for its methodology. It is said to have no specific, systematic method of testing propositions about the world. Brissett and Edgley claim that there is nothing special about doing dramaturgy. Being sensitive to the expressive dimension of behavior demands no special methodology or observational skills. However, there should be an unnerving and single-minded commitment to the observation of people's doings.

Another criticism is that dramaturgy slights the impact of larger social units, such as institutions, on human behavior. In response, Brissett and Edgley assert that there can be no doubt that people's interaction contexts are circumscribed by structural arrangements. However, rather than dwelling on the limitations, dramaturgy focuses on what people do within the contexts that are available to them. The concept of role is used as a way of accounting for people's connections to one another as well as to the structures and organizations with which they are identified.

Finally, the most prevalent critique has to do with the theatrical metaphor. Critics say that the theater is make-believe and everyday life is real. Brissett and Edgely respond that life is neither theater nor is it different from theater. It is theater like.


The behavior of groups is one of the largest research areas in social psychology. Most people realize that groups tend to behave differently than individuals. These group behaviors are sometimes beneficial and positive, but can also be detrimental and negative. Social psychologists often look at topics such as group dynamics, leadership, group decision making, conflicts, cooperation, and group influence.  

Social psychologists are also interested in the role that social influence has on behavior and decision making. Topics such as the psychology of persuasion, peer pressure, conformity, and obedience are only a few of those studied in this area of social psychology.  

Research has helped reveal the power of social influence and has uncovered ways to help people resist influence.