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Does looking into a mirror relieve eye strain in a similar way to looking at distant objects?

Does looking into a mirror relieve eye strain in a similar way to looking at distant objects?



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Sometimes when having an eye exam the eye chart is viewed through a mirror to increase the distance between the person and the chart.

When using consoles, it is recommended to look away from the console and look into the distance.

My question is:

For the purposes of relieving eye strain, does the perceived increased distance of looking at an object in a mirror, serve the same purpose as looking at the same object from twice the distance?


As far as I understand it and as per explained by my eye doctor,

If we separate this variable from the other possible ones that can cause eye strain while staring at a monitor like amount of "blue light" (check out the program f.lux), overall brightness, refresh rate, etc., then-

-the variable that can cause eye strain as you explain, "looking at something too close for to long," is caused by overextending the muscles and/or the way in which they contract (some combination of this most likely) in your eyes that causes you to focus on something up close.

So, by looking off into the distance, you are stretching those muscles (changing the way their contracting kinda) and/or giving them a chance to relax for a bit.

I'm quite sure that you and not your environment are actually the true controllers over how these muscles contract.

Try this experiment: Imagine there are mountains behind your computer screen and try to look through your computer screen in order to see them. It may feel unusual at first, and a bit difficult - however if done right you'll be able to feel it.

Here's another experiment: Find some shadow or corner in your room where absolutely no light shines into. It could be a crevice or whatever - you could even make it artificially. It could even be in the depths between the keys in your keyboard. Just as long as it's pitch black. When you look into something that is pitch black, from a visual perspective, neither you nor your eyes know how far that darkness extends - meaning it's left up to you to determine how you focus or not focus on it. I can look between the keys on my keyboard and see pitch black - I know that only extends a a few millimeters if any in reality… but my sight isn't telling me that. For a sight perspective, those depths might really end at the center of the earth or travel on for millions of miles.

  • ie. you can change this focus just like as if you were changing the focus on a camera. It is somewhat of a skill, but not too hard of one to acquire.

Now trying to achieve this effect is easier admittedly when there is true distance to look at or into. If you're trying to fake it, I also wouldn't recommend trying to look through your computer screen as in my example above for relief. That was just an extreme example to prove a point - it's possible, but not ideal (and you are still also left with other variables like refresh rate, brightness, etc.).

So as long as you are able to induce this change in eye muscle contractions by actually looking off into the distance, or artificially induce it by tricking your eyes into thinking they are doing so - it doesn't matter as the end goal was accomplished either way. The only thing that differs is the potential intensity of this relief you'll get when trying to induce artificially in contrast to doing so in reality; the artificially part is obviously dependent upon your skill and belief that you can actually do that though.

For the purposes of relieving eye strain, does the perceived increased distance of looking at an object in a mirror, serve the same purpose as looking at the same object from twice the distance?

If you perceive it to be true, then your eyes will too - so it would cause the same change in muscle contraction/stretching/relaxation effect that accompanies changes in focus.

After thinking about your mirror trick, I don't actually think it would work. Your perception of the objects will be just as close as if you were looking right at them.


Blurry vision: Causes and treatment

Myopia: Symptoms of myopia (nearsightedness) include squinting, eye strain, headaches and blurry vision in one or both eyes. Myopia is the most common refractive error and causes objects in the distance to appear blurred.

Eyeglasses, contact lenses and refractive surgery such as LASIK and PRK are the most common ways to correct nearsightedness.

Watch this video on what causes blurry vision and how we can correct it.

Hyperopia: If you have hyperopia (farsightedness), distant objects may remain clear but your eyes can&apost focus properly on close-up objects — or doing so causes unusual eye strain and fatigue. In cases of severe farsightedness, even distant objects may appear blurred.

Like myopia, hyperopia can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive eye surgery.

Astigmatism: Blurred vision at all distances often is a symptom of astigmatism. A type of refractive error, astigmatism usually is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea.

With astigmatism, light rays fail to come to a single focus point on the retina to produce clear vision, regardless of how far away the viewed object is from your eyes.

Astigmatism, like nearsightedness and farsightedness, can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.

Presbyopia: If you&aposre over age 40 and are starting to notice blurry vision up close — when reading a text message, a restaurant menu, food label or other small print, for example — chances are this is due to the onset of presbyopia, a normal age-related vision problem.

While the symptoms of presbyopia are the same as those caused by hyperopia (blurry near vision eye strain when reading), presbyopia is an age-related loss of ability to focus on near objects due to hardening of the lens inside the eye.

Common treatments for presbyopia include progressive lenses, bifocals and reading glasses. There also are presbyopia surgery options — including corneal inlays, monovision LASIK and conductive keratoplasty.

For all eyeglasses to correct refractive errors and presbyopia, clarity and comfort can be enhanced with anti-reflective coating and photochromic lenses. Ask your optician for details.

Dry eye syndrome can affect your eyes in numerous ways, including causing variable blurry vision. While artificial tears (lubricating eye drops) can help, more advanced cases of dry eye may require a prescription medication or punctal plugs to keep your eyes comfortable, healthy and seeing well.

Pregnancy: Blurry vision is common during pregnancy and sometimes is accompanied by double vision (diplopia). Hormonal changes can alter the shape and thickness of your cornea, causing your vision to blur. Dry eyes also are common in pregnant women and can cause blurred vision.

You should always report any vision disturbances during pregnancy to your doctor. While blurry vision is not always serious, in some cases it could be an indicator of gestational diabetes or high blood pressure.

Ocular migraines or migraine headaches: While generally harmless and temporary, blurred vision, flickering light, halos or zigzag patterns are all common symptoms prior to the start of an ocular migraine or migraine headache.

Eye floaters: Vision can be blurred by temporary spots or floaters drifting in your field of vision. Floaters typically appear when the eye&aposs gel-like vitreous begins to liquify with age, causing microscopic bits of tissue within the vitreous to float freely inside the eye, casting shadows on the retina.

If you see a sudden shower of floaters, this could signal a torn or detached retina and you should see an eye doctor immediately.

Blurry vision after LASIK: Your vision may be blurry or hazy immediately after LASIK or any other type of refractive surgery. The clarity of your eyesight typically will improve within a few days, but it may take more time for your vision to stabilize completely.

Eye drops and medication: Certain eye drops — especially eye drops containing preservatives — can cause irritation and blurry vision.

Also, some medications such as allergy pills can cause side effects of dry eyes and blurred vision. During a comprehensive eye exam, your optometrist or ophthalmologist can advise you whether any of your medications might cause blurry vision.

Over-wearing contact lenses: Wearing disposable contact lenses (or indeed any type of contacts) for longer than your doctor prescribed will cause proteins and other debris in your tear film to build up on the lenses. This can cause blurry vision and increase your risk of eye infections.


Why am I seeing double?

Double vision occurs when a person sees a double image where there should only be one. The two images can be side by side, on top of one another, or both.

The condition can affect balance, movement, and reading ability.

If double vision affects just one eye, it is monocular. If it affects both eyes, it is binocular. Treatments depend on the cause and type, but they include eye exercises, specially designed glasses, and surgery.

This article will look at the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of double vision.

Share on Pinterest double vision blurred hand crop

Nerve or muscle damage in the eye might cause double vision.

Each eye creates its own image of the environment. The brain combines the representations from each eye and perceives them as one clear picture.

Damage to the muscles that move the eyes or the nerves that control eye movement can create a double image.

The eyes must work together to create depth of field.

Certain illnesses can weaken the muscles moving the eyes and produce double vision.

Causes of binocular double vision

A common cause of binocular double vision is a squint or strabismus.

This occurs when the eyes are not properly aligned. Strabismus is relatively common in children. However, the condition does not always result in double vision.

Strabismus causes the eyes to look in slightly different directions. This might be because the affected eye muscles have the following difficulties:

  • They are paralyzed or weak.
  • They have restricted movement.
  • They are too strong or overactive.
  • The nerves controlling the eyes muscles have abnormalities.

Sometimes, a squint can return later in life for people who had a squint as a child. In some cases, the treatment of a squint can actually cause double vision, despite the individual’s vision being normal before the squint was treated.

This is because the brain had been suppressing signals from one of the eyes in an attempt to maintain normal vision.

Other conditions can cause double vision include:

  • Thyroid dysfunction: The thyroid gland is in the neck and produces a hormone called thyroxine. Changes in thyroid function can affect the external muscles that control the eye. This includes Grave’s ophthalmopathy, in which the eyes can appear to protrude because fat and tissue build up behind the eye.
  • Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA): In a stroke, blood fails to reach the brain due to an obstruction in the blood vessels. This can affect the blood vessels supplying the brain or nerves controlling the eye muscles and cause double vision.
  • Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel. This can press on the nerve of the eye muscle.
  • Convergence insufficiency: In this condition, the eyes do not work together correctly. The cause is unknown, but it is thought to be due to the muscles that control the eye not lining up correctly.
  • Diabetes: This can affect the blood vessels that supply the retina at the back of the eye. It can also affect the nerves that control eye muscle movements.
  • Myasthenia gravis: This can cause weakness in the muscles, including those that control the eyes.
  • Brain tumors and cancers: A tumor or growth behind the eye can interfere with free movement or damage the optic nerve.
  • Multiple sclerosis: MS is a disease that affects the central nervous system, including the nerves in the eyes.
  • Black eye: An injury can cause blood and fluid to collect around the eye. This can put pressure on the eye itself or the muscles and nerves around it.
  • Head injury: Physical damage to the brain, nerves, muscles, or eye socket can restrict the movement of the eye and its muscles.

Causes of monocular double vision

If double vision is noted when one eye is covered but not the other, this is referred to as monocular double vision.

Share on Pinterest Cataracts are a possible cause of double vision.

Monocular double vision is less common than binocular double vision. The following conditions can cause monocular double vision and can be caused by the following conditions:

  • Astigmatism: The cornea, or the transparent layer at the front of the eye, is irregularly shaped. With astigmatism, the cornea has two curves on the surface similar to a football instead of being perfectly round like a basketball.
  • Dry eye: The eye does not produce enough tears, or it dries out too quickly.
  • Keratoconus: This is a degenerative condition of the eye that causes the cornea to become thin and cone-shaped.
  • Retinal abnormalities: In macular degeneration, for example, the center of an individual’s field of vision slowly disappears, and sometimes there is swelling which can cause double vision in one eye.
  • Cataracts: Cataracts occur in more than half of all people in the United States over the age of 80 years and can sometimes cause double vision in one eye.

Temporary double vision

Double vision can sometimes be temporary. Alcohol intoxication, benzodiazepines, opioids, or certain medications for seizures and epilepsy sometimes cause this. Head injuries, such as concussions, can also cause temporary double vision.

Being particularly tired or having strained eyes can bring on temporary double vision. If normal vision does not return quickly, seek medical attention as soon as possible.


What exactly is Myopia?

If you ask an optometrist, they would say that the cause of your myopia is the elongation of your eyeball.

They are absolutely right about that.

When your eye elongates, images started to get blurry since you can’t fully focus the image to your retina.

So why did your eyeball suddenly become elongated? They just blame it into genetics. Like how they explained it to me.

HOWEVER, not me since I am going to introduce you to the root cause of your myopia.

I present you, ciliary spasm.

What is that Ciliary spasm?

Did you see the ciliary muscle on that eye anatomy above? Remember that it is a muscle and muscles sometimes have spasms.

These muscles hold your lens and forms them to help you see clearly. When they spasm, it decreases the quality of image you see. Can you guess what that is? There is a scientific term for that. It is called Pseudomyopia.

Yup, as in Pseudo (Fake), Myopia (Nearsightedness). So Fake Myopia, Why fake? More on it later.

Why are your glasses Screwing you over?

Do you remember when I told you in my story when I complained that I can’t see the board in the classroom. Thus, I had my first pair of glasses?

That is because growing up, I was addicted to video games. As you already know, I already quit video games. I shared the link to my article on that here. But what happened is that the reason for ciliary spasm is continuous near work. I’m not working but I’ve been looking at screens all night, reading books at school. All near work. Thus, my ciliary muscles did have those spasms.

Now, since your local optometrist did not explained this to you. Surprised? Me either. They gave me glasses as a treatment for my FAKE myopia.

Why is it fake? simple. The reason why I can’t see clearly is because it is ciliary spasm, not the elongation of my eyeball.

Now that they’ve given me those glasses that they thought I would wear for the rest of my life, those glasses is what caused me to have myopia in the first place. Now, I don’t have pseudomyopia but a real myopia. Lens induced myopia it is.

Now, let me tell you how this happens.

Remember when you have an optometrist check? Dark room, small letters, try to read the smallest letter?

Here is my question for you to answer, you do realize that you can see better when the sun is up compared to a dark room?

Exactly! Sun light is good for your eyes. I really wonder why they made those transition lenses. Hmmm.

Note: Do not look directly in the sun. While sunlight is good for your eyesight, looking at it directly is too much to handle for your eyes. Everything that is too much is bad. Always Remember that rule.

Anyway, the sunlight is great as its light can make clearer images to your eyes.

Now, imagine getting a full correction for a dark room and you started using those glasses outside while the sun is out?

You see where I’m going? You are being over prescribed. Imagine how stressed your eyes have become because of that. Since you are over prescribed, the eye has to compensate by increasing your myopia since it is really stressed out from that glasses.

That’s why I was prescribed a low prescription when I was 13, then got to -2.25 in college, then -3.25 soon after graduating.

Now, do you realize now why you need to wear glasses everyday? I felt that pain when I found out about this stuff.

So Do I need to throw away my Glasses?

Not necessarily. Well based on my research, it depends. Once you get an eye grade that only needs -0.5 diopters, you may freely remove your glass and do the techniques I’m going to show you further in this article.

However, for most of us, we should NOT throw away our glasses immediately.

There is a thing called blur adaptation. Which means that your brain has already adapted to the extent of your myopia.

Is it bad? DEFINITELY! If you brain thinks that your blurry eyesight is normal, there won’t be any improvements anymore.You should let your brain know that your eyes need to be see clearly.

If I’m not going to throw away my glasses, should I change my prescription.

For most of us, we need to change or rather reduce our prescription. Don’t worry. The step by step procedure in choosing the right reduction on your prescription will be taught later in the article.

For now, just know that removing your glasses immediately is not a good option. Also, reducing your prescription by a large extent is also not a wise choice.


Should we turn on or turn off the lights while working? [duplicate]

I get used to work at home in complete darkness, regardless of whether I'm currently gazing at 27' monitor or looking into 13' notebook screen.

Recently a friend of mine has told that this is quite harmful to vision - basically because of staring at something very bright without any other light sources. My question is - Does there indeed exist an experimentally proven best practice for lightning mode for, well, I guess, for all of us, office workers.


The Best Small Tablet Display (Hint: It's Not the iPad Mini)

A new generation of mini 7 to 8-inch tablets from three of the major manufacturers has just completed with the belated launch of the Apple iPad mini with retina display. While the Kindle Fire HDX, Nexus 7, and new iPad mini all have improved displays over their previous year counterparts, only one truly stands out—as lagging significantly behind.

All of this year's smaller tablets should be, in principle, a notch down from the large size flagship tablets that we recently tested. But the mini tablets are growing rapidly in popularity and market share, so it’s a fiercely competitive category. As a result, they have some of the very highest technology displays with quantum dots, low temperature poly silicon, IGZO and/or high efficiency backlight LEDs, all of which have a major impact on real image quality that we examine below.

The 7-inch tablet format was pioneered by the Barnes & Noble Nook Color, Amazon Kindle Fire, and (original) Google Nexus 7. After dismissing the smaller 7-inch tablets, Apple subsequently introduced in 2012 its own iPad mini, with a 7.9-inch 1024×768 display with a (surprisingly) much smaller color gamut and higher screen reflectance than the existing models of the Kindle Fire and Nexus 7. A lot has happened to displays and display technology over the past year so this is much more than a rematch.

These new mini tablets all have higher than full high definition displays that have about 325 PPI pixels per inch. At normal viewing distances a person with 20/20 vision can’t resolve the individual pixels, so the displays appear to be perfectly sharp. With high resolution and sharpness taken care of (for now), there are many other equally important and even more challenging issues for mini tablets displays:

1) Picture quality as good or better than your HDTV (to entice you to watch downloaded content).

2) Excellent true color accuracy and accurate image contrast for high fidelity images of all viewed content.

3) Improved screen performance in high ambient light since Tablets aren’t used in the dark.

We’ll cover these issues and much more, with in-depth comprehensive display tests, measurements and analysis that you will find nowhere else.

Amazon provided DisplayMate Technologies with a production unit of the Kindle Fire HDX 7 to test and analyze for this display technology shoot-out article.

The Shoot-Out

To examine the display performance of the Amazon Kindle Fire HDX 7, the Apple iPad mini Retina Display, and the new Google Nexus 7 (2013) we ran our in-depth series of mobile display technology shoot-out lab tests. We take display quality very seriously and provide in-depth objective analysis and side-by-side comparisons based on detailed laboratory measurements and extensive viewing tests with both test patterns and test images. To see how far mobile displays have progressed in just three years see our 2010 smartphone display shoot-out and 2011 tablet display shoot-out , and for a real history lesson see our original 2006 smartphone display shoot-out .

Result Highlights

In this results section we provide highlights of the comprehensive lab measurements and extensive side-by-side visual comparisons using test photos, test images and test patterns that are presented below. The comparison table section summarizes the Lab measurements in the following categories: Screen reflections , brightness and contrast , colors and intensities , viewing angles , display white spectrum , display power consumption , running time on battery . You can also skip the highlights and go directly to the conclusions .

Overview of the Kindle Fire HDX 7

The Kindle Fire HDX 7 is Amazon’s third-generation LCD tablet, and their displays have been improving by leaps and bounds since we first tested them back in 2011. Their full-size flagship Kindle Fire HDX 8.9 is the best performing tablet display that we have ever tested, due in part to using the highest performance LCDs with low temperature poly silicon LTPS. But the mini Kindle Fire HDX 7 that we test here is also incredibly innovative because it is the first tablet display to use super high technology quantum dots, which produce highly saturated primary colors for LCDs that are similar to those produced by OLED displays. They not only significantly increase the color gamut to 100 percent but also improve the power efficiency at the same time. It’s a very impressive display with very impressive technology. More on these issues below.

Overview of the new Google Nexus 7

The new Google Nexus 7 (manufactured for Google by Asus) has a very impressive display that uses the highest performance LCDs with low temperature poly silicon LTPS, the same technology used in the iPhone 4 and 5, but on the new Nexus 7 with more than 3 times the screen area—it’s currently the second largest LTPS on a mobile display after the Kindle Fire HDX 8.9 mentioned above. The very high efficiency LTPS technology allows the new Nexus 7 display to provide a full 100 percent color gamut and at the same time produce the brightest Tablet display that we have measured so far in this shoot-out series. More on these issues below.

Overview of the iPad mini Retina Display

The iPad mini with retina display is Apple’s second generation mini tablet. The first generation iPad mini was disappointing because not only did it have a low resolution low PPI display, but its small 62 percent Color Gamut was the same as the older iPad 2, instead of the 100 percent Color Gamut on the iPad 3 and iPad 4 (and the new iPad Air). The new iPad mini with retina display has a high resolution high PPI display like the other two mini tablets that we test here. But shockingly, it still has the same small 63 percent color gamut as the original iPad mini and even older iPad 2. As a result, the iPad mini with retina display comes in with a distant 3rd place finish behind the innovative displays on the Kindle Fire HDX 7 and new Nexus 7. More on these issues below.

IGZO and LTPS

For the last two years one of the most talked about developments in display technology has been the introduction of IGZO (Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide). For both LCD and OLED displays, IGZO can be used to make the electronic circuitry in their Backplanes, which controls all of the pixels and sub-pixels. IGZO’s higher electron mobility allows the circuitry to be much smaller compared to traditional amorphous Silicon a-Si, which is currently what is used in most LCD displays. That allows the brightness and power efficiency of the display to significantly increase, which is very important. But the introduction of IGZO has been repeatedly delayed as the result of production and yield issues. Although all of the major display manufacturers are working on IGZO, Sharp has been the biggest advocate, and it is currently shipping some IGZO displays, including in the current iPads. LG is also shipping IGZO displays, including in its OLED TV, but not currently for the iPads.

This has created a production problem where Apple is using both IGZO and a-Si displays in the current iPads. The problem is that a-Si has much lower power efficiency than IGZO, so it uses much more power and also needs bigger batteries. So how can Apple use both display technologies in the same product? I’ve been told by using much higher performance (and cost) White LEDs in the Backlight of the a-Si panels, which equalizes the power efficiency for both types of displays in different ways. As a result, both types of displays can be engineered into the same tablet and can provide comparable results for the consumer.

All of this reliance on IGZO is really bad planning. Right now there is a readily available display technology that has much higher performance than IGZO. It’s low temperature poly silicon LTPS, and it is used in all of the iPhones and in all of Samsung OLEDs (so it’s available in large quantities). Two innovative tablet manufacturers, Amazon and Google, have significantly leapfrogged Apple by introducing Tablet displays using LTPS (in the Kindle Fire HDX 8.9 and the new Nexus 7), and they are significantly outperforming the IGZO and a-Si displays in the current iPads. Apple is now lagging in displays, an area where it was once the leader.

Quantum Dots

While IGZO has been getting most of the attention, a dark horse called quantum dots has emerged as a new and truly revolutionary super high-tech advancement for LCD displays – and it is showing up for the first time in the Kindle Fire HDX 7, which we test here.

Quantum dots are almost magical because they use quantum physics to produce highly saturated primary colors for LCDs that are similar to those produced by OLED displays. They not only significantly increase the size of the color gamut by 40-50 percent but also improve the power efficiency by an additional 15-20 percent. Instead of using White LEDs (which have yellow phosphors) that produce a broad light spectrum that makes it hard to efficiently produce saturated colors, Quantum dots directly convert the light from blue LEDs into highly saturated primary colors for LCDs. You can see the remarkable difference in their light spectra in Figure 4 . Quantum dots are going to revolutionize LCDs for the next 5+ years. To learn more about quantum dots read this from Nanosys . Congratulations to Amazon for leading the way and being the first to incorporate this revolutionary new display technology in Tablets! It will be interesting to see how rapidly other manufacturers adopt quantum dots. See Figure 1 and Figure 2 and the Colors and Intensities section for details.

Display Sharpness

These mini tablets all have almost exactly 326 pixels per inch PPI (the same as the Retina Display iPhones). For 20/20 Vision the pixels are not resolved for viewing distances of 10.5 inches or more, which is less than the typical viewing distance of 12 inches or more. As expected, all were incredibly and impressively razor sharp, especially noticeable with text and graphics (and significantly sharper than the previous models).

Display Brightness

All of these mini tablets have fairly bright displays, with the Nexus 7 the brightest tablet that we have measured so far in this shoot-out series, with an impressive maximum brightness of 572 cd/m 2 (sometimes called nits). Part of this is due to its high performance and high efficiency LTPS LCD display discussed above. The Kindle HDX 7 has a very bright 494 cd/m 2 , and the iPad mini a much lower but still very good 414 cd/m 2 (but the Nexus 7 is 38 percent brighter). Note that it is important to appropriately adjust the display brightness in order to preserve battery power and running time, and also to reduce eye strain from looking at too bright a display. See the brightness and contrast section for details.

Accurate Factory Display Calibration

The raw LCD panel hardware first needs to be adjusted and calibrated at the factory with specialized firmware and software data that are downloaded into the device in order for the display to produce a usable image – let alone an accurate and beautiful one. This is actually a science but most manufacturers seem to treat it as if it were a modern art form, so few tablets, smartphones, and even HDTVs produce accurate high quality images. The iPad mini actually has an excellent and accurate calibration considering its small color gamut (below) because each unit receives individual display factory calibration. Each Kindle Fire HDX 7 also receives individual unit display calibration for the color gamut and white point. For the Nexus 7 we don’t have any specific calibration information.

Intensity Scale and Accurate Image Contrast

The intensity scale (sometimes called the gray scale) not only controls the contrast within all displayed images but it also controls how the red, green, and blue primary colors mix to produce all of the on-screen colors. So if the intensity scale doesn't accurately follow the standard that is used to produce virtually all consumer content then the colors and intensities will be wrong everywhere in all images. Unfortunately, many manufacturers are quite sloppy with the intensity scales on their displays.

The iPad mini has a virtually perfect intensity scale as the result of its detailed individual unit factory calibration. The intensity scale for the Kindle Fire 7 is a bit too steep, which increases the image contrast somewhat higher than it should be. That’s not always bad, because high ambient lighting winds up reducing image contrast, so the extra steepness can be beneficial. On the other hand, the Nexus 7 like all Nexus tablets that we have tested, has a non-standard and too shallow intensity scale. That is always bad because it reduces precious image contrast, reduces color saturation, and introduces additional color errors. See Figure 3 and the colors and intensities section for details.

Color Gamut

The color gamut is the range of colors that a display can produce. In order to show accurate on-screen colors the display must match the standard sRGB/Rec.709 Color gamut that is used to produce virtually all consumer content. Note that consumer content does not include colors outside of the standard gamut, so a display with a wider color gamut cannot show colors that aren't in the original and will only produce inaccurate exaggerated on-screen colors—so in this instance, bigger than 100 percent is not better. The measured color gamuts for these mini tablets are shown in figure 1 .

The Kindle Fire HDX 7 and Nexus 7 both have color gamuts close to the sRGB/Rec.709 standard, in the range of 97 to 103 percent, which is very good. However, the iPad mini retina display has a much smaller 63 percent color gamut, which is incredibly disappointing because it produces noticeably subdued image colors. In fact, it’s almost identical to the gamuts on the much older iPad 2 and the original iPad mini. That is inexcusable for a current generation premium tablet. It’s way below the Kindle Fire HDX 7 and 8.9, the iPad 3, iPad 4, iPad Air, and just about all current generation premium Tablets and Smartphones – see our Mobile Shoot-Out series . Compare the color gamuts in figure 1 and in the colors and intensities section.

Absolute Color Accuracy

Getting very accurate screen image colors is very important and also very difficult because the display and calibration all need to be done extremely well at the factory. We have performed a set of detailed Lab spectroradiometer measurements of the Tablet displays to see how accurately they reproduce a set of 21 reference colors within the standard sRGB/Rec.709 color gamut. The reference colors and the colors actually reproduced by the mini tablets are shown in Figure 2 . The iPad mini is shown separately because its small color gamut results in very large errors within the plot.

The color accuracy errors are examined in terms of JNCD ( Just Noticeable Color Difference). The Kindle Fire has the best overall accuracy with an average color error of 3.0 JNCD, which is very good. The Nexus 7 came in a close second at 3.1 JNCD, and the iPad mini came in a distant third with 6.6 JNCD. The peak color accuracy errors are much higher, particularly for the iPad mini, with 23.4 JNCD. The iPad mini does have some color management that improves the color accuracy for low saturation colors, but it can’t fix the higher saturated colors. See figure 2 for a discussion of JNCD with plots of the reference colors and the actually reproduced colors, and the colors and intensities section for the numerical results.

Screen Reflectance and Performance in High Ambient Lighting

The screens on almost all tablets and smartphones are mirrors good enough to use for personal grooming. Even in moderate ambient lighting the sharpness and colors can noticeably degrade from light reflected by the screen, especially objects like your face and any bright lighting behind you. Screen reflectance has been steadily decreasing. These mini tablets have around 6.5 percent reflectance, ranging from 24 to 36 percent higher than the flagship Kindle Fire HDX 8.9, which has the lowest reflectance screen that we’ve measured for a tablet. The iPad mini is the highest mini reflectance at 6.8 percent—considerably lower than the original iPad mini, which had 9.0 percent Reflectance, so this is a large improvement. This article has screen shots that show how screen images degrade from reflections in bright ambient light. See the screen reflections section for details.

Viewing Angle Performance

While tablets are primarily single viewer devices, the variation in display performance with viewing angle is still very important because single viewers frequently hold the display at a variety of viewing angles, plus they are large enough for sharing the screen with others. All of these tablets have displays with high performance IPS or FFS LCD technology, so they were expected to show very little color shift with viewing angle, and our lab measurements confirmed their excellent viewing angle performance, with no visually noticeable color shifts. However, all LCDs, do have a strong decrease in brightness (luminance) with viewing angle, and these mini displays all showed, as expected, more than a 50 percent decrease in brightness at a modest 30 degree viewing angle. See the viewing angles section for details.

Viewing Tests

The big differences in color gamut between the Kindle Fire HDX 7 and Nexus 7, and the much smaller gamut in the iPad mini retina display were quite obvious and easy to see in the side-by-side viewing tests. The Kindle Fire had the best color accuracy and overall picture quality, with slightly too much color saturation and image contrast due too a slightly too steep Intensity Scale. The Nexus 7 was a close second, primarily as the result of too shallow an intensity scale. The iPad mini retina display came in a very distant 3rd place finish with significantly undersaturated colors—particularly noticeable are reds that appear too orange, together with greens and blues that appear weak and washed out. See figure 1 and figure 2 and the colors and intensities section for quantitative details.

Display Power Efficiency

We measured the power consumption of all three displays. The relative power efficiency (for the same luminance and screen area) is highest for the Nexus 7, which has the highest performance and most efficient LTPS low temperature poly silicon LCD. Second is the Kindle Fire HDX 7, which has a backlight using quantum dots that increases the power efficiency by 20 percent while at the same time increasing the color gamut by up to 50 percent as discussed above.

The iPad mini retina display has the lowest power efficiency of the tested mini tablets. It uses 30 percent more display power than the original (Non-Retina) iPad mini. But that means there has been a significant enhancement in its power efficiency (from either IGZO or high performance White LEDs as discussed above), because the jump up to retina display from the iPad 2 to iPad 3 resulted in more than a 100 percent display power increase. See the IGZO discussion above and our iPad 3 display shoot-out for more information on LTPS, IGZO and a-Si power efficiency. See the display power consumption section for details.

Conclusions: Two Very Impressive Tablet Displays and One Disappointment

These mini tablets include some of the most impressive and innovative displays and display technologies, which is perhaps not that surprising given how popular and competitive this mobile category has become.

First, they all have high resolution displays, with more pixels than your 50 inch HDTV, but on a 7-8 inch screen, which is certainly impressive. With about 325 pixels per inch, at normal viewing distances a person with 20/20 vision can’t resolve the individual pixels, so the displays all appear to be perfectly sharp.

Even more impressive is that the Kindle Fire HDX 7 and new Google Nexus 7 displays also deliver a full 100 percent color gamut, with color accuracy and picture quality that is probably better than most HDTVs, laptops, and monitors. They accomplish this in two very different ways.

The new Google Nexus 7 has a very impressive display that uses the highest performance LCDs with low temperature poly silicon LTPS. The very high efficiency LTPS technology allows the new Nexus 7 display to provide a full 100 percent color gamut and at the same time produce the brightest tablet display that we have measured so far in this shoot-out series.

Most impressive of all is the Kindle Fire HDX 7--the first tablet display to use super high technology quantum dots, which produce highly saturated primary colors that are similar to those produced by OLED displays. They not only significantly increase the color gamut to 100 percent but also improve the power efficiency at the same time. Instead of using white LEDs (which have yellow phosphors) that produce a broad light spectrum that makes it hard to efficiently produce saturated colors, quantum dots directly convert the light from blue LEDs into highly saturated primary colors for LCDs. You can see the remarkable difference in their light spectra in Figure 4 . Quantum dots are going to revolutionize LCDs for the next 5+ years. To learn more about Quantum Dots read this from Nanosys . Congratulations to Amazon for leading the way and being the first to incorporate this revolutionary display technology in tablets! It will be interesting to see how rapidly other manufacturers adopt quantum dots. This level of display competition and excellence is great to see! Consumers will come to appreciate and then demand this new high level of display performance excellence, which will hopefully spur other manufacturers into improving their display performance in order to remain competitive.

And finally, the iPad mini with retina display unfortunately comes in with a distant 3rd place finish behind the innovative displays on the Kindle Fire HDX 7 and new Nexus 7 because it still has the same small 63 percent color gamut as the original iPad mini and even older iPad 2. That is inexcusable for a current generation premium tablet. The big differences in color gamut between the Kindle Fire HDX 7 and Nexus 7 and the much smaller 63 percent gamut in the iPad mini retina display were quite obvious and easy to see in the side-by-side viewing tests. See figure 1 to compare the widely disparate color gamuts and figure 2 to see the very large color errors that result. This all appears to be due to incredibly poor planning. Instead of moving up to the higher performance (and cost) low temperature poly silicon LCDs, Apple chose to continue gambling on IGZO, which has resulted in both production shortages and inferior products.

Two innovative tablet manufacturers, Amazon and Google, have significantly leapfrogged Apple by introducing tablet displays using LTPS (in the Kindle Fire HDX 8.9 and the new Nexus 7), and they are significantly outperforming the IGZO and a-Si displays in the current iPads. Apple was once the leader in mobile displays, unfortunately it has fallen way behind in both tablets and smartphones. This should be a wakeup call.


Blurry vision: Causes and treatment

Myopia: Symptoms of myopia (nearsightedness) include squinting, eye strain, headaches and blurry vision in one or both eyes. Myopia is the most common refractive error and causes objects in the distance to appear blurred.

Eyeglasses, contact lenses and refractive surgery such as LASIK and PRK are the most common ways to correct nearsightedness.

Watch this video on what causes blurry vision and how we can correct it.

Hyperopia: If you have hyperopia (farsightedness), distant objects may remain clear but your eyes can&apost focus properly on close-up objects — or doing so causes unusual eye strain and fatigue. In cases of severe farsightedness, even distant objects may appear blurred.

Like myopia, hyperopia can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive eye surgery.

Astigmatism: Blurred vision at all distances often is a symptom of astigmatism. A type of refractive error, astigmatism usually is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea.

With astigmatism, light rays fail to come to a single focus point on the retina to produce clear vision, regardless of how far away the viewed object is from your eyes.

Astigmatism, like nearsightedness and farsightedness, can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.

Presbyopia: If you&aposre over age 40 and are starting to notice blurry vision up close — when reading a text message, a restaurant menu, food label or other small print, for example — chances are this is due to the onset of presbyopia, a normal age-related vision problem.

While the symptoms of presbyopia are the same as those caused by hyperopia (blurry near vision eye strain when reading), presbyopia is an age-related loss of ability to focus on near objects due to hardening of the lens inside the eye.

Common treatments for presbyopia include progressive lenses, bifocals and reading glasses. There also are presbyopia surgery options — including corneal inlays, monovision LASIK and conductive keratoplasty.

For all eyeglasses to correct refractive errors and presbyopia, clarity and comfort can be enhanced with anti-reflective coating and photochromic lenses. Ask your optician for details.

Dry eye syndrome can affect your eyes in numerous ways, including causing variable blurry vision. While artificial tears (lubricating eye drops) can help, more advanced cases of dry eye may require a prescription medication or punctal plugs to keep your eyes comfortable, healthy and seeing well.

Pregnancy: Blurry vision is common during pregnancy and sometimes is accompanied by double vision (diplopia). Hormonal changes can alter the shape and thickness of your cornea, causing your vision to blur. Dry eyes also are common in pregnant women and can cause blurred vision.

You should always report any vision disturbances during pregnancy to your doctor. While blurry vision is not always serious, in some cases it could be an indicator of gestational diabetes or high blood pressure.

Ocular migraines or migraine headaches: While generally harmless and temporary, blurred vision, flickering light, halos or zigzag patterns are all common symptoms prior to the start of an ocular migraine or migraine headache.

Eye floaters: Vision can be blurred by temporary spots or floaters drifting in your field of vision. Floaters typically appear when the eye&aposs gel-like vitreous begins to liquify with age, causing microscopic bits of tissue within the vitreous to float freely inside the eye, casting shadows on the retina.

If you see a sudden shower of floaters, this could signal a torn or detached retina and you should see an eye doctor immediately.

Blurry vision after LASIK: Your vision may be blurry or hazy immediately after LASIK or any other type of refractive surgery. The clarity of your eyesight typically will improve within a few days, but it may take more time for your vision to stabilize completely.

Eye drops and medication: Certain eye drops — especially eye drops containing preservatives — can cause irritation and blurry vision.

Also, some medications such as allergy pills can cause side effects of dry eyes and blurred vision. During a comprehensive eye exam, your optometrist or ophthalmologist can advise you whether any of your medications might cause blurry vision.

Over-wearing contact lenses: Wearing disposable contact lenses (or indeed any type of contacts) for longer than your doctor prescribed will cause proteins and other debris in your tear film to build up on the lenses. This can cause blurry vision and increase your risk of eye infections.


Why am I seeing double?

Double vision occurs when a person sees a double image where there should only be one. The two images can be side by side, on top of one another, or both.

The condition can affect balance, movement, and reading ability.

If double vision affects just one eye, it is monocular. If it affects both eyes, it is binocular. Treatments depend on the cause and type, but they include eye exercises, specially designed glasses, and surgery.

This article will look at the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of double vision.

Share on Pinterest double vision blurred hand crop

Nerve or muscle damage in the eye might cause double vision.

Each eye creates its own image of the environment. The brain combines the representations from each eye and perceives them as one clear picture.

Damage to the muscles that move the eyes or the nerves that control eye movement can create a double image.

The eyes must work together to create depth of field.

Certain illnesses can weaken the muscles moving the eyes and produce double vision.

Causes of binocular double vision

A common cause of binocular double vision is a squint or strabismus.

This occurs when the eyes are not properly aligned. Strabismus is relatively common in children. However, the condition does not always result in double vision.

Strabismus causes the eyes to look in slightly different directions. This might be because the affected eye muscles have the following difficulties:

  • They are paralyzed or weak.
  • They have restricted movement.
  • They are too strong or overactive.
  • The nerves controlling the eyes muscles have abnormalities.

Sometimes, a squint can return later in life for people who had a squint as a child. In some cases, the treatment of a squint can actually cause double vision, despite the individual’s vision being normal before the squint was treated.

This is because the brain had been suppressing signals from one of the eyes in an attempt to maintain normal vision.

Other conditions can cause double vision include:

  • Thyroid dysfunction: The thyroid gland is in the neck and produces a hormone called thyroxine. Changes in thyroid function can affect the external muscles that control the eye. This includes Grave’s ophthalmopathy, in which the eyes can appear to protrude because fat and tissue build up behind the eye.
  • Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA): In a stroke, blood fails to reach the brain due to an obstruction in the blood vessels. This can affect the blood vessels supplying the brain or nerves controlling the eye muscles and cause double vision.
  • Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel. This can press on the nerve of the eye muscle.
  • Convergence insufficiency: In this condition, the eyes do not work together correctly. The cause is unknown, but it is thought to be due to the muscles that control the eye not lining up correctly.
  • Diabetes: This can affect the blood vessels that supply the retina at the back of the eye. It can also affect the nerves that control eye muscle movements.
  • Myasthenia gravis: This can cause weakness in the muscles, including those that control the eyes.
  • Brain tumors and cancers: A tumor or growth behind the eye can interfere with free movement or damage the optic nerve.
  • Multiple sclerosis: MS is a disease that affects the central nervous system, including the nerves in the eyes.
  • Black eye: An injury can cause blood and fluid to collect around the eye. This can put pressure on the eye itself or the muscles and nerves around it.
  • Head injury: Physical damage to the brain, nerves, muscles, or eye socket can restrict the movement of the eye and its muscles.

Causes of monocular double vision

If double vision is noted when one eye is covered but not the other, this is referred to as monocular double vision.

Share on Pinterest Cataracts are a possible cause of double vision.

Monocular double vision is less common than binocular double vision. The following conditions can cause monocular double vision and can be caused by the following conditions:

  • Astigmatism: The cornea, or the transparent layer at the front of the eye, is irregularly shaped. With astigmatism, the cornea has two curves on the surface similar to a football instead of being perfectly round like a basketball.
  • Dry eye: The eye does not produce enough tears, or it dries out too quickly.
  • Keratoconus: This is a degenerative condition of the eye that causes the cornea to become thin and cone-shaped.
  • Retinal abnormalities: In macular degeneration, for example, the center of an individual’s field of vision slowly disappears, and sometimes there is swelling which can cause double vision in one eye.
  • Cataracts: Cataracts occur in more than half of all people in the United States over the age of 80 years and can sometimes cause double vision in one eye.

Temporary double vision

Double vision can sometimes be temporary. Alcohol intoxication, benzodiazepines, opioids, or certain medications for seizures and epilepsy sometimes cause this. Head injuries, such as concussions, can also cause temporary double vision.

Being particularly tired or having strained eyes can bring on temporary double vision. If normal vision does not return quickly, seek medical attention as soon as possible.


Crowther (2018) discusses a closely related topic, the visual appearance of solidity.

Many authors (for example, Fish 2010) take the notion of a visual impression for granted and are happy simply to stipulate that CTP applies only to these. There is nothing wrong with this elucidating vision is not the purpose of CTP. Nevertheless, an adequate elucidation of visual impressions, and particularly of object-impressions, provides a fuller understanding of the phenomena mentioned at the beginning of this paper and helps scotch some wildly counter-intuitive applications of the theory.

Despite his title, “The Causal Theory of Perception,” Grice was not primarily interested in perception. His aim, and his great achievement in this paper, was to distinguish between semantical and pragmatic explanations of everyday language implications. The main example, made relevant by the then unpublished views of Austin (1962) and of others listed by Alan White (1961, p. 158), was the idea that ‘X looks red’ implies either that somebody has denied that it is red, or that there is cause for doubt that it is. Grice transformed philosophy of language with his argument that this is a pragmatic, not a semantic, implication.

Snowdon (1980–1981) says that ‘looks’ should be understood “phenomenologically” in Grice’s CTP. I assume he is alluding to Frank Jackson (1977), who defines this as ‘looks F’ where F is a term for a colour, shape, or distance. This overlaps with the proposal considered in section III, and I’ll discuss it there.

To conform to Grice’s formulation, I have substituted ‘looks a certain way’ for ‘sees’ in this definition. As well, I have not (as Dretske does) insisted on logical necessity, which cannot, by its nature, apply to some but not all statements of the same logical form, and cannot therefore distinguish between ‘My hand looks this way’ and ‘His finances look this way.’ I have substituted the vaguer term, ‘analytically.’.

There are other accounts of the semantics of ‘looks’ as it is used to report visual impressions. See, in particular, Martin (2010). For a sophisticated comprehensive treatment, see Brogaard (2015, 2018).

Such looks are a problem for artificial intelligence recognition-modules: the reason why it takes advanced computational techniques to recognize faces is that the look of a face is not reducible to low-level visual properties (see Martin 2010 for an explication of looks).

This is what Brogaard (2018, pp. 14–22) does, supplementing her view with an argument against top-down influences.

Snowdon (1980–1981, p. 176) incorporates visual phenomenology in his formulation of CTP, but he retains the tie to reports of the form, “It looks to me as if…” This reluctance to talk directly of visual experience is now passé: see, for example, Fish (2010), chapter 7. But it needs to be clarified that not every experience characteristic of seeing counts in this context: being dazzled by a flash bulb and having an after-image of it are effects of seeing the light, but do not constitute seeing it. For this reason, I have specified that it is an experience as of things outside the perceiving subject.

The same goes for the expectations that go with active looking. Suppose that the content of seeing something as a 3D object includes the expectation that if you move to the left, you will see parts of it that were theretofore hidden from sight suppose the content of seeing something as a shadow or stain similarly includes the expectation that you will not. Then, the content of imagining that you see such objects includes the same expectations.

I should say here, for the sake of clarity, that attentive looking at an object is not necessary in order to see that object. You may look at a scene, or at one object in a scene, and thereby see (other) objects that you are not directly looking at.

For discussions of active vision, see Aloiomanos et al. (1987), Churchland et al. (1994), Findlay and Gilchrist (2003), Clark (2014), p. 101 and Matthen (2014).

Sensory substitution is an interesting case. TVSS-stimulated blind people who are tactually stimulated do report visual-like experiences of depth and perspective produced by an activity that resembles looking in relevant ways. I won’t pursue this discussion here, but see Macpherson (forthcoming), especially the Introduction.

Embarrassingly for Grice, he would have to say that the colour-blind person does see the same ‘5’ as the colour-sighted person.

Grice writes, “If someone has seen a speck on the horizon, which is in fact a battleship, we should in some contexts be willing to say that he has seen a battleship” (147). True: a lookout would get credit for having spotted it. But it’s hard to extend the same courtesy to a spotter who failed to discern a camouflaged moth right before his eyes.

Many thanks to Maarten Steenhagen who showed me some astonishing drawings of migraine auras, showing striking similarities between different subjects.

It’s not clear to me how his account would work in olfaction, gustation, and touch.

In a clever and instructive paper, Yetter-Chappell (2018) explicitly reverses this methodology, arguing (see her note 3) for an approach in which examples drive theory, rather than the other way around. I agree with many of the conclusions that she arrives at, but my aim to show how things go wrong or are different in certain examples, and here the theory of object-seeing helps.

There is a distant ancestor of this argument in Maxwell (1962), who asks whether we see “corporeal organisms” through microscopes, observing that there is a continuum (of unspecified dimensionality) between seeing through a vacuum and seeing through a microscope. It’s unclear, though, why either Yetter-Chappell or Maxwell before her, take the similarity of the external process to be the sole determinant of whether or not we see an object. Why don’t they allow that the dissimilarity of the resultant visual impression is relevant?

If we did not see the material object to which S belongs, there would be no difference between visually segregating S and seeing it as a material surface.

I was privileged to present versions of this paper at Oberlin College, New York University (Abu Dhabi), and Durham University. I am very grateful to Todd Ganson, Gabe Rabin, and Clare Mac Cumhaill for these opportunities and I thank my audiences for discussion, particularly my commentator in Abu Dhabi, Phillip Meadows. Two anonymous referees for this journal read the paper thrice each with amazing care and intelligence. They made a big difference.


Evolutionarily speaking, our brains assume that if we are eating then we aren’t in any immediate danger, so the fight or flight response is weakened.

There you have it. The 25 most useful psychological life hacks that can help you gain advantage in social situations. Use them wisely.

This article was originally published in The Quintessential Man, and edited for HighExistence.

By Andrian Iliopoulos

Andrian is a lifelong learner, devoted skeptic and the founder of “The Quintessential Man” - an online community that offers a holistic approach to men’s self-growth. He is also the creator of the "30 Challenges-30 Days-Zero Excuses” project that aims to help people get rid of their bad habits, take back control of their lives and reinvent themselves.


Cool Jobs: Solar sleuthing

This is one of the most detailed images of the sun&rsquos corona, or thin outer surface, shown here in false color. The actual light was in the extreme ultraviolet part of the spectrum &mdash a region not visible to the human eye. It was captured by a space telescope camera system, known as &ldquoHi-C,&rdquo launched in 2012.

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In 1859, a massive burst of energy from the sun slammed into Earth. It caused telegraph wires to explode in sparks, which gave some telegraph operators electric shocks. People could see auroras — the northern lights — as far south as Cuba and Hawaii.

If such a powerful burst, called a solar flare, were to hit our planet today, it could disrupt modern civilization. The energy could zap satellites, fry computer systems and knock out power grids. So when can we expect the next “super flare” to strike?

That’s the question Steven Saar has been trying to answer. He is one of many scientists trying to better understand our sun.

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Of all the bodies in the universe, the sun seems one of the most familiar. After all, by the time you turn 20, you’ll have seen it rise and set some 7,300 times. But there’s still a lot that science does not yet know about the star at the center of our solar system. What causes solar flares and can they be predicted? Why is the sun’s atmosphere more than a million degrees hotter than its surface? How does the sun actually work?

Our star is still full of mysteries. And here are three scientists who are working to crack the case.

Sampling other suns

Saar is an astronomer studying at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., who studies stars. He wanted to know how often the sun produces a super flare like the one in 1859. There was just one problem: it had only happened once in recorded history. That made it mathematically impossible to predict how often it might occur.

To get a larger sample, Saar had to look outside our solar system. “The sun is a star,” he says. “So one can go out and try to find other stars that are as similar to the sun as possible.”

Here, a depiction of the Kepler space telescope as it scouts for twins of our sun — and the planets that might orbit around them. NASA

Using data from NASA’s Kepler space telescope, he looked for these “sun twins.” He turned up 84 sun-like stars and observed them for around four years. He wanted to see how often they released bursts of energy at least as powerful as the 1859 flare. Then he combined all of these data to get an average.

The stars he studied were younger and more active than our sun. That meant they had more flares. When he adjusted the results for an older, quieter star, he got his answer. A star like our sun should produce a super flare once every 200 to 480 years. His best guess: probably close to 350 years.

Saar was excited. “Getting an estimate for the sun itself, that was the holy grail, the key question,” he says.

Hooked on stars

Saar has loved astronomy since he was a child. While he explored other sciences as a student, astronomy was always his favorite. Eventually he decided to become an astronomer. In graduate school, galaxies were a popular subject. Saar wanted to do something different. A mentor suggested he look at sun-like stars. And with that, he was hooked.

Super-hot, electrically charged gas (plasma) rises up in an arc from the surface of the Sun. These orange streamers reveal the structure of the sun’s magnetic field, seen here rising vertically from a sunspot. Hinode, JAXA/NASA

“The sun is obviously really important to us,” he says. “It’s actually an area of astronomy that has relevance for our daily life. So it’s interesting and important to understand how the sun works, how it can change over time and what it can do.”

Saar saw that the key to understanding some of the sun’s biggest mysteries might actually be in looking at other stars.

“Although we can study the sun in great detail, it’s only a single example,” he says. “The idea is that if you study a lot of stars that are maybe similar to the sun, you might learn how the sun works.” In this case, it will be “indirectly, by looking at other examples.”

Saar looks for stars that are similar to our sun in mass, temperature, age, chemical composition and other properties. Sometimes it’s useful to look at stars that are similar to the sun in every way but one. “What if the sun was a little bit heavier?” Saar asks. “What would that change? And what does it tell you about the sun itself?”

Next, Saar would like to add more stars to his sample. That would let him predict the frequency of super flares more precisely. He also plans to look at his original data again. He wants to remove any other bursts of energy or activity near a star that may have been mistaken for a flare. That might lower the estimate slightly, getting it closer to results announced by Japanese scientists working on the same question. They had predicted a super flare once every 500 to 600 years. “I think we’re homing in on a good number,” Saar says.

A powerful new telescope

At the top of a 10,000-foot mountain on the Hawaiian island of Maui, the world’s most powerful solar telescope is under construction. When completed, the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope will be able to see objects on the sun’s surface as small as 18 miles across.

Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope now under construction on Maui, Hawaii. Brett Simison

Solar physicist Thomas Schad is helping design one of the five main tools that will be used in the telescope. He is a scientist with the University of Hawaii’s Institute for Astronomy in Pukalani. His instrument will analyze the makeup of the sun’s light.

Every element reflects light at a different wavelength. By splitting a beam of light into these wavelengths, scientists can learn about the sun’s properties. These include such things as what chemicals it is made of and how hot they are.

This split light is referred to as a spectrum. Studying it doesn’t just tell scientists about how the sun works. It also gives them a close-up look at some of the physics that might also be happening in more distant stars. Because the sun is so close, they can study it in much greater detail.

“We’re looking at features you’ll never see on another star,” Schad explains.

Explainer: Understanding light and electromagnetic radiation

Schad got interested in solar physics while he was in college. He had taken part in a research program. The scientist who supervised him handed him data on the light spectra from explosions in the sun. Schad was asked to use those data to learn more about the explosions.

“It’s amazing just how much information we can pull out from the sun by analyzing the spectrum,” Schad now observes.

When what you need does not exist

As he began studying the sun, Schad realized that some of the tools he needed did not yet exist. He was excited to build them himself. “That’s how science moves forward. You know what the questions are, and you come up with ways you might answer them.” Plus, he adds, “I’ve always liked tinkering with things.”

The instrument Schad is helping to build for the new solar telescope will analyze infrared light. It is called the Diffraction Limited Near Infrared Spectropolarimeter (SPEK-trow-po-ler-IM-eh-tur) — or DL-NISP, for short. Many of the most important elements in the sun reflect light at infrared wavelengths. When the telescope first sees light in 2019, the DL-NISP will be used to study magnetic fields at the sun’s surface and in its lower atmosphere.

Schad must study the instrument’s design and make sure it has all the parts that it will need to do its job. He sends guidelines to the people producing its lenses and mirrors. Then he orders other special parts. When all of the pieces are completed, he must test each one to make sure they meet the telescope’s strict requirements. Then he will start putting them together.

In all, the telescope will have 21 lenses, 15 mirrors, three cameras and 21 motors. “We basically are building a big robot,” he says.

Solving a solar mystery

If you took a stroll on the surface of the sun, the temperature would be a relatively cool 6,000° Celsius (11,000° Fahrenheit). But move up into the sun’s atmosphere and it gets much toastier — around 2 million degrees. Why is the sun’s atmosphere so much hotter than its surface? And where does all that heat come from? These are among the biggest mysteries in solar science.

Data from the Hinode solar telescope, illustrated here, and another space-based telescope are helping scientists better understand the sun’s magnetic fields and how they affect temperatures in the solar atmosphere. NASA

Some physicists think the heating of the solar atmosphere, or corona, is related to the sun’s magnetism. They think that waves of magnetic energy vibrate. These waves might move energy from the sun’s interior out into the corona, where it would be released as heat. But they’re not sure exactly how that might work.

Patrick Antolin wanted to test this theory. He is a solar physicist at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan in Tokyo. He also is part of a team that worked with two space-based telescopes.

Japan’s Hinode telescope observed how the sun’s magnetic waves moved from side to side. NASA’s IRIS telescope measured their twisting motion. Combining both sets of data gave the scientists a complete picture of the movement.

With this, they saw the first direct evidence that coronal heating is caused by magnetic resonance. That’s when two magnetic waves vibrate in sync with one another, causing one of the waves to get stronger.

Antolin’s team then used a supercomputer to run a numerical simulation. It showed how this movement created an unusual form of turbulence — a bumpy swirling of gases — not seen on Earth. It also showed how this turbulence released energy into the atmosphere.

Antolin was excited. And part of that was because this finding was such a surprise. When they started the project, his team didn’t think it would work. True, his model predicted magnetic resonance would cause heating. But previous observations didn’t seem to support the theory. Still, the physicist says: “I was unwilling to give up so easily.”

This animation shows the unusual turbulence created by magnetic waves in the sun. Patrick Antolin

When his group finally put all of the data together for the first time, these scientists were able to show how it worked. They realized magnetic resonance was not acting alone. It was accompanied by that strange turbulence. “The combination of both these mechanisms was producing exactly what was being observed,” he says.

What’s next for his research? Antolin’s team only looked at magnetic resonance in solar prominences (large loops of gas). That’s one type of structure in the sun. Next, they want to see if it also happens in another type of structure called spicules (little jets of gas).

If they can show that their model explains heating in many parts of the sun, it may someday solve the coronal mystery once and for all. And along with research by Saar and Schad, such findings will bring us a little closer to understanding our nearest star — our sun.

This is one in a series on careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics made possible with generous support from Alcoa Foundation.

Power Words

(for more about Power Words, click here)

astronomy The area of science that deals with celestial objects, space and the physical universe. People who work in this field are called astronomers.

astrophysics An area of astronomy that deals with understanding the physical nature of stars and other objects in space. People who work in this field are known as astrophysicists.

aurora A light display in the sky caused when incoming energetic particles from the sun collide with gas molecules in a planet’s upper atmosphere. The best known of these is Earth’s aurora borealis, or northern lights. On some outer gas planets, like Jupiter and Saturn, the combination of a fast rate of rotation and strong magnetic field leads to high electrical currents in the upper atmosphere, above the planets’ poles. This, too, can cause auroral “light” shows in their upper atmosphere.

average (in science) A term for the arithmetic mean, which is the sum of a group of numbers that is then divided by the size of the group.

corona The envelope of the sun (and other stars). The sun’s corona is normally visible only during a total solar eclipse, when it is seen as an irregularly shaped, pearly glow surrounding the darkened disk of the moon.

element (in chemistry) Each of more than one hundred substances for which the smallest unit of each is a single atom. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium and uranium.

galaxy A massive group of stars bound together by gravity. Galaxies, which each typically include between 10 million and 100 trillion stars, also include clouds of gas, dust and the remnants of exploded stars.

graduate school Programs at a university that offer advanced degrees, such as a Master’s or PhD degree. It’s called graduate school because it is started only after someone has already graduated from college (usually with a four-year degree).

infrared light A type of electromagnetic radiation invisible to the human eye. The name incorporates a Latin term and means “below red.” Infrared light has wavelengths longer than those visible to humans. Other invisible wavelengths include X rays, radio waves and microwaves. It tends to record a heat signature of an object or environment.

Kepler Space Telescope A NASA mission to search for exoplanets — planets beyond the solar system — especially ones that might be Earth-like. The mission’s development began in 2002, by placing the first orders for the needed instruments that would be used. The mission was named for Johannes Kepler (1571 to 1630), the first person to describe the motions of planets about the sun so that their positions could be predicted accurately. The spacecraft carrying the telescope Kepler spacecraft lifted off March 6, 2009, at 10:49 p.m. from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. As of May 20, it had turned up 2,327 confirmed exoplanets and another 4,696 possible ones.

lens (in physics) A transparent material that can either focus or spread out parallel rays of light as they pass through it. (in optics) A curved piece of transparent material (such as glass) that bends incoming light in such a way as to focus it at a particular point in space. Or something, such as gravity, that can mimic some of the light bending attributes of a physical lens.

magnetic field An area of influence created by certain materials, called magnets, or by the movement of electric charges.

magnetic resonance The vibration of two magnetic waves in synchrony, allowing one of them to strengthen.

mass A number that shows how much an object resists speeding up and slowing down — basically a measure of how much matter that object is made from.

mentor An individual who lends his or her experience to advise someone starting out in a field. In science, teachers or researchers often mentor students or younger scientists by helping them to refine their research questions. Mentors can also offer feedback on how young investigators prepare to conduct research or interpret their data.

model A simulation of a real-world event (usually using a computer) that has been developed to predict one or more likely outcomes.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA Created in 1958, this U.S. agency has become a leader in space research and in stimulating public interest in space exploration. It was through NASA that the United States sent people into orbit and ultimately to the moon. It has also sent research craft to study planets and other celestial objects in our solar system.

numerical Having to do with numbers.

physics The scientific study of the nature and properties of matter and energy. Classical physics is an explanation of the nature and properties of matter and energy that relies on descriptions such as Newton’s laws of motion. Quantum physics, a field of study which emerged later, is a more accurate way of explaining the motions and behavior of matter. A scientist who works in that field is known as a physicist.

simulate To deceive in some way by imitating the form or function of something. A simulated dietary fat, for instance, may deceive the mouth that it has tasted a real fat because it has the same feel on the tongue — without having any calories. A simulated sense of touch may fool the brain into thinking a finger has touched something even though a hand may no longer exists and has been replaced by a synthetic limb. (in computing) To try and imitate the conditions, functions or appearance of something. Computer programs that do this are referred to as simulations.

solar Having to do with the sun, including the light and energy it gives off.

solar prominence A cloud of solar material that become suspended above the star’s surface by the sun’s magnetic field. (This same magnetism also drives other events such as solar flares and the ejection of material from the sun’s corona.) Prominences stream up and out along the sun’s magnetic field lines before thinning and eventually breaking away from the sun’s surface.

solar system The eight major planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of dwarf planets, asteroids, meteoroids and comets.

solar flare A burst of electromagnetic energy from the sun.

spectrum A range of related things that appear in some order. (in light and energy) The range of electromagnetic radiation types they span from gamma rays to X rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared energy, microwaves and radio waves.

spicule A small and usually slender, sharp-pointed crystal or part of some object. (in astronomy) A dense jet of gas that erupts from the lowest levels of the sun’s atmosphere. They can rise some 10,000 kilometers (roughly 6,000 miles) above the sun’s surface before falling back to it again. Perhaps 100,000 of them across the solar surface may be active at any given time.

star Thebasic building block from which galaxies are made. Stars develop when gravity compacts clouds of gas. When they become dense enough to sustain nuclear-fusion reactions, stars will emit light and sometimes other forms of electromagnetic radiation. The sun is our closest star.

telescope Usually a light-collecting instrument that makes distant objects appear nearer through the use of lenses or a combination of curved mirrors and lenses. Some, however, collect radio emissions (energy from a different portion of the electromagnetic spectrum) through a network of antennas.

turbulence The chaotic, swirling flow of air. Airplanes that run into turbulence high above ground can give passengers a bumpy ride.

universe The entire cosmos: All things that exist throughout space and time. It has been expanding since its formation during an event known as the Big Bang, some 13.8 billion years ago (give or take a few hundred million years).

wavelength The distance between one peak and the next in a series of waves, or the distance between one trough and the next. Visible light — which, like all electromagnetic radiation, travels in waves — includes wavelengths between about 380 nanometers (violet) and about 740 nanometers (red). Radiation with wavelengths shorter than visible light includes gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet light. Longer-wavelength radiation includes infrared light, microwaves and radio waves.

Citations

S. Ornes. “How the outer sun gets so hot.” Science News for Students. August 17, 2011.

E. Sohn. “Predicting Solar Storms.” Science News for Students. March 9, 2006.


The Hazard’s of Poor Lighting In The Workplace

Whether in industrial or office settings, proper lighting makes all work tasks easier and safer. People receive about 85 percent of their information through their sense of sight.

Appropriate lighting, without glare or shadows, can reduce eye fatigue and headaches. It highlights moving machinery and other safety hazards. It also reduces the chance of accidents and injuries from ‘momentary blindness’ while the eyes adjust to brighter or darker surroundings.

The ability to see at work depends not only on lighting but also on:

  • The time to focus on an object fast moving objects are hard to see
  • The size of an object very small objects are hard to see
  • Brightness too much or too little reflected light makes objects hard to see
  • Contrast between an object and its immediate background too little contrast makes it hard to distinguish an object from the background
  • Insufficient light – not enough light for the need
  • Glare – too much light for the need
  • Improper contrast
  • Poorly distributed light
  • Flicker Poor lighting can cause several problems such as:
  • Misjudgment of the position, shape or speed of an object can lead to accidents and injury
  • Poor lighting can affect the quality of work, particularly in a situation where precision is required, and overall productivity
  • Poor lighting can be a health hazard – too much or too little light strains eyes and may cause eye irritation and headaches

Daylight

How much daylight reaches inside a building depends on the amount and direction of sunlight, cloud cover, local terrain, and the season. The size, orientation and cleanliness of the windows is also important. The amount of daylight entering the workplace can be controlled with tinted glass, window blinds, curtains, and awnings. Daylight is desirable in the workplace providing it does not cause glare or make the work area too bright. Remember, not enough light can also be a problem so even in workplaces where daylight is available, it is essential to have a good electric lighting system.

Electric lighting

The amount of light, the colour of the light itself and the colour that objects appear vary with the type of electric lighting. The lighting must match the workplace and the task.

There are three basic types of lighting:

General lighting provides fairly uniform lighting. An example would be ceiling fixtures that light up large areas. Localised-general lighting uses overhead fixtures in addition to ceiling fixtures to increase lighting levels for particular tasks. Local, or task lighting increases light levels over the work and immediate surroundings. Local lighting often allows the user to adjust and control lighting and provides flexibility for each user.

Different types of light fixtures

The complete lighting unit (also called the light fixture, or luminaires) controls and distributes the light. Various types of light fixtures are designed to distribute light in different ways. These fixtures are known as:

No single type of light fixture is appropriate in every situation. The amount and quality of lighting required for a particular workstation or task will determine which light fixture is most suitable. Direct light fixtures project 90 to 100 percent of their light downward towards the work area. Direct lighting tends to create shadows. Direct-indirect light fixtures distribute light equally upwards and downwards. They reflect light off the ceiling and other room surfaces. Little light is emitted horizontally, meaning direct glare is often reduced. They are usually used in ‘clean’ manufacturing areas.

Indirect light fixtures distribute 90 to 100 percent of the light upward. The ceiling and upper walls must be clean and highly reflective to allow the light to reach the work area. They provide the most even illumination of all the types of fixtures and the least direct glare. Indirect light fixtures are usually used in offices. Shielded light fixtures use diffusers, lenses and louvers to cover bulbs from direct view, thereby helping to prevent glare and distribute light.

  • Diffusers are translucent or semi-transparent covers made usually of glass or plastic. They are used on the bottom or sides of light fixtures to control brightness
  • Lenses are clear or transparent glass, or plastic covers. The lens design incorporates prisms and flutes to distribute light in specific ways
  • Louvers are baffles that shield the bulb from view and reflect light. The baffles can be contoured to control light and decrease brightness.

Parabolic louvers are specially shaped grids that concentrate and distribute light LED (light-emitting diode) bulbs are now on the market. They use 85% less energy and last up to 20 years longer. LED lighting presents a new, more environmentally friendly option. It’s long lasting and can save you money over an extended period. These lights are heavier than other lighting options, and the bulb is on average a little taller than a standard light bulb however, the base can fit in standard light sockets. These lights will keep going long after incandescent and CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) would have stopped working, and they’ll save you money on your electrical bill. They are more expensive but the return on investment is huge.

The incandescent light bulb has been the standard lighting option for nearly 100 years. In recent decades, the CFL has gained popularity because it’s more energy efficient and lasts longer. The bulb contains mercury, however, and takes a while to shine at its brightest – and is expensive for disposal. On average, about a dozen watts from energy efficient LED bulbs provides the same amount of light as a 60-watt incandescent. This means you save on electricity without scrimping on the amount of light you have.

LED light bulbs – what to look for

When you’re shopping for an LED light bulb, it’s important to find one that provides the amount of light you need, as well as the colour of light you like. You’ll also want to consider how the light emits from the bulb, and the dimension of the bulb and base.

  1. Features – A standard 60-watt incandescent bulb puts off about 800 lumens. The more lumens, the brighter the light is. LED light bulbs provide many lumens for few watts compared to incandescent bulbs. Since this is the case, it’s better to find a bulb that has low wattage but high lumens because it will save you on your energy bill. You also want to find an LED light bulb that offers a long lifespan. Most offer between 25,000 and 50,000 hours of light.
  2. Design – The dimensions and weight of LED bulbs are not the same as a standard incandescent bulb. LED light bulbs are on average a quarter of an inch taller. The average diameter of these LED lights is similar to that of incandescent bulbs, but varies depending on the model. LED lights are also heavier than incandescent bulbs, so you’ll want to be sure that your light fixture can support the extra weight. Most LED light bulbs can’t be fully enclosed in a light fixture because heat decreases the life of the light bulb. If you plan to use your LED light bulbs outside, you’ll first want to verify that they can withstand damp outdoor conditions. If you want to dim your lights with an LED light bulb, you’ll need to have one that the manufacturer has specifically designed to perform as a dimmer. The beam spread is another thing to consider. While incandescent lights put off light in all directions, LED lighting typically sends its light in one direction. The best LED light bulbs that are comparable to 60-watt incandescent bulbs distribute the light around the bulb as well as from the top.
  3. Help and support – Chances are you won’t need to be in contact much with the manufacturer to use your light bulbs. Having a practical return policy and warranty is important, though, since these light bulbs cost more than incandescent and CFLs. A good LED light bulb should come with at least a three to five year warranty.

Test and correct poor lighting problems

To detect insufficient light, try the following:

  • Wipe light fixtures with a damp cloth to check for cleanliness an evenly deposited film of dust is hard to detect by sight alone
  • Measure the average illumination throughout the workplace compare this to the recommended levels
  • Look for shadows, especially over work areas and on stairways
  • Ask workers if they suffer from eye strain or squint to see

Workers should sit in their normal working positions during measurement to give you accurate results. To correct insufficient light:

  • Replace bulbs on a regular schedule. Old bulbs give less light than new ones so replace them before they burn out. Follow manufacturers’ instructions
  • Clean light fixtures regularly. Dirt on light fixtures reduces the amount of light given off. Light fixtures with open tops allow air currents to move dust up through the fixture so dust and dirt do not accumulate on the fixture
  • Add more light fixtures in appropriate places
  • Paint walls and ceilings light colours so light can be reflected
  • Use more reflected light and local lighting to eliminate shadows for example, a covered light mounted under a transparent guard on a grinding wheel provides the added light needed to clearly see the task
  • Do not position work station with light fixture directly behind worker

What should you know about glare?

Glare is a common lighting problem. Glare is what happens when a bright light source or reflection interferes with how you are ‘seeing’ an object. In most cases, your eyes will adapt to the brightest level of light. When this adaptation happens, it becomes harder to see the details in the duller or darker areas of the work space (even though they are actually sufficiently lit). Glare can cause annoyance and discomfort, and can actually decrease a person’s ability to see.

How do you detect glare?

There are several ways to find sources of glare:

  1. When in your normal working position, look at a distant object at eye level. Block the light ‘path’ from the fixtures with a book or cardboard. If the distant object is now easier to see, the light fixtures are probably producing glare.
  2. To detect reflected glare, look at the task from your normal working position. Block the light falling on it from the front or above. If details are now easier to see, reflections are a problem.
  3. Place a small mirror face up on the work surface. The mirror reflects light from above, the light fixture is responsible for glare.
  4. Look for shiny objects that reflect light. Glass in picture frames, glossy table tops and VDT screens are common examples.
  5. Ask workers if they experience sore or tired eyes, headaches, or if they need to squint to see.
  • Using several small low-intensity light fixtures rather than one large high-intensity light fixture
  • Using light fixtures that diffuse or concentrate light well indirect light fixtures or direct light fixtures with parabolic louvres are two possibilities
  • Covering bare bulbs with louvres, lenses or other devices to control light
  • Increasing the brightness of the area around the glare source
  • Using adjustable local lighting with brightness controls
  • Positioning light fixtures to reduce reflected light that is directed toward the eyes
  • Using low gloss paper or apply flat or semi-gloss paint and matt finishes on ‘offending’ surfaces. Remove highly polished and shiny objects
  • Keeping general lighting at recommended levels
  • Positioning the work station so that windows and fluorescent light tubes are parallel to the worker’s line of sight
  • Do not position the work station so that light fixtures are to the front or directly overhead

Poorly distributed light?

When light is poorly distributed, parts of the ceiling and general surroundings will seem dark and gloomy. Substantial differences in light levels force your eyes to readjust when moving from one light level to another. Workers may find it difficult or impossible to see properly.

You can detect poorly distributed light by:

  • Looking for dark areas and uneven lighting
  • Using a light meter to check the illumination at various points throughout the workplace. With uniform general lighting, the minimum reading should not be less than two-thirds of the average value

Correct for poorly distributed light by:

  • Supplementing or replacing light fixtures with ones that distribute some light upwards
  • Painting ceiling and walls in light colours that reflect light
  • Cleaning ceilings, walls and light fixtures

A complete lighting survey may be needed to identify and solve more subtle or complicated problems. A complete lighting survey requires complex equipment and practical experience. A complete basic lighting survey includes the following:

  1. Illuminance – Illuminance doesn’t only make the city safe: it is also relevant for industrial work places. The right direction and strength of indoor lighting enables quick and accurate work, safely in vast and often largely windowless buildings. The same principles apply to lighting in industry and production as to working places in the service industry. The individual must feel well. Illuminance is the amount of light falling on a surface. The unit of measurement is lux (or lumens per square metre = 10.76 foot candles, fc). A light meter is used to measure it. Readings are taken from several angles and positions.
  2. Luminance – Luminance is the amount of light reflected from a surface. The unit of measurement is candela per square metre (equals 0.29 foot-lamberts). An illuminance meter is used to measure it. Several measurements are made and averaged. Luminance tables are consulted for reference values.
  3. Contrast – This is the relationship between the brightness of an object and its background. A luminance meter is used to measure it. The following formula is used to calculate contrast and provides a number between 0 and 1. The average contrast should be above 0.5:
  4. Reflectance – This is the ratio of light falling on a surface to the light reflected from a surface, expressed as a percentage. A light meter is used to measure it. Reflectance can also be measured using a reflectometer or by comparing the surface of interest with colour chips of known reflectance.

Conclusions

The cost factor of industrial lighting is one that weighs heavily on employers, particularly in these troubled economic times. Too often saving on the lighting of industrial workplaces means compromising on safety and reducing productivity due to poorer working conditions.


What exactly is Myopia?

If you ask an optometrist, they would say that the cause of your myopia is the elongation of your eyeball.

They are absolutely right about that.

When your eye elongates, images started to get blurry since you can’t fully focus the image to your retina.

So why did your eyeball suddenly become elongated? They just blame it into genetics. Like how they explained it to me.

HOWEVER, not me since I am going to introduce you to the root cause of your myopia.

I present you, ciliary spasm.

What is that Ciliary spasm?

Did you see the ciliary muscle on that eye anatomy above? Remember that it is a muscle and muscles sometimes have spasms.

These muscles hold your lens and forms them to help you see clearly. When they spasm, it decreases the quality of image you see. Can you guess what that is? There is a scientific term for that. It is called Pseudomyopia.

Yup, as in Pseudo (Fake), Myopia (Nearsightedness). So Fake Myopia, Why fake? More on it later.

Why are your glasses Screwing you over?

Do you remember when I told you in my story when I complained that I can’t see the board in the classroom. Thus, I had my first pair of glasses?

That is because growing up, I was addicted to video games. As you already know, I already quit video games. I shared the link to my article on that here. But what happened is that the reason for ciliary spasm is continuous near work. I’m not working but I’ve been looking at screens all night, reading books at school. All near work. Thus, my ciliary muscles did have those spasms.

Now, since your local optometrist did not explained this to you. Surprised? Me either. They gave me glasses as a treatment for my FAKE myopia.

Why is it fake? simple. The reason why I can’t see clearly is because it is ciliary spasm, not the elongation of my eyeball.

Now that they’ve given me those glasses that they thought I would wear for the rest of my life, those glasses is what caused me to have myopia in the first place. Now, I don’t have pseudomyopia but a real myopia. Lens induced myopia it is.

Now, let me tell you how this happens.

Remember when you have an optometrist check? Dark room, small letters, try to read the smallest letter?

Here is my question for you to answer, you do realize that you can see better when the sun is up compared to a dark room?

Exactly! Sun light is good for your eyes. I really wonder why they made those transition lenses. Hmmm.

Note: Do not look directly in the sun. While sunlight is good for your eyesight, looking at it directly is too much to handle for your eyes. Everything that is too much is bad. Always Remember that rule.

Anyway, the sunlight is great as its light can make clearer images to your eyes.

Now, imagine getting a full correction for a dark room and you started using those glasses outside while the sun is out?

You see where I’m going? You are being over prescribed. Imagine how stressed your eyes have become because of that. Since you are over prescribed, the eye has to compensate by increasing your myopia since it is really stressed out from that glasses.

That’s why I was prescribed a low prescription when I was 13, then got to -2.25 in college, then -3.25 soon after graduating.

Now, do you realize now why you need to wear glasses everyday? I felt that pain when I found out about this stuff.

So Do I need to throw away my Glasses?

Not necessarily. Well based on my research, it depends. Once you get an eye grade that only needs -0.5 diopters, you may freely remove your glass and do the techniques I’m going to show you further in this article.

However, for most of us, we should NOT throw away our glasses immediately.

There is a thing called blur adaptation. Which means that your brain has already adapted to the extent of your myopia.

Is it bad? DEFINITELY! If you brain thinks that your blurry eyesight is normal, there won’t be any improvements anymore.You should let your brain know that your eyes need to be see clearly.

If I’m not going to throw away my glasses, should I change my prescription.

For most of us, we need to change or rather reduce our prescription. Don’t worry. The step by step procedure in choosing the right reduction on your prescription will be taught later in the article.

For now, just know that removing your glasses immediately is not a good option. Also, reducing your prescription by a large extent is also not a wise choice.


Should we turn on or turn off the lights while working? [duplicate]

I get used to work at home in complete darkness, regardless of whether I'm currently gazing at 27' monitor or looking into 13' notebook screen.

Recently a friend of mine has told that this is quite harmful to vision - basically because of staring at something very bright without any other light sources. My question is - Does there indeed exist an experimentally proven best practice for lightning mode for, well, I guess, for all of us, office workers.